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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 615 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Wildlife Crossings

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of May 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 615 Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Wildlife Crossings John A. Bissonette Patricia C. Cramer U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--UTAH COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY Logan, UT Subject Areas Planning and Administration Energy and Environment Highway and Facility Design Maintenance Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 615 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 25-27 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-11740-1 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008905372 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 615 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher J. Hedges, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 25-27 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning--Area of Impact Analysis J. M. Yowell, Versailles, KY (Chair) Kyle Williams, New York State DOT, Albany, NY Jason E. Alcott, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul, MN Brendan K. Chan, Ottawa, ON Kelly O. Cohen, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Michael W. Hubbard, Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO Jerald M. Powell, Lyons, CO Jodi R. Sivak, Gloucester, MA Mary E. Gray, FHWA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison Cover photograph: Wolverine Overpass in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada ( K. Gunson, used with permission).

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was conducted under NCHRP Project 25-27 by the U.S. Geological Sur- vey (USGS) Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Wildland Resources, Col- lege of Natural Resources at Utah State University (USU); Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson Uni- versity; Engineering Professional Development Department, University of Wisconsin; Texas A&M University; Sylvan Consulting Ltd., Invermere British Columbia, and Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University. Utah State University was awarded the prime contract for this study. The work undertaken at the Uni- versity of Wisconsin, Texas A&M University, Ryerson University, Sylvan Consulting Ltd., and Montana State University was performed under separate subcontracts with Utah State University. Principal inves- tigator for the effort is John A. Bissonette, Leader of the USGS Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit at Utah State University and Professor in the Department of Wildland Resources. The work was done under the general supervision of Professor Bissonette with his Research Associate Dr. Patricia Cramer and his students Silvia Rosa and Carrie O'Brien at USU. Paul Jones, Jamey Anderson, Brian Jennings, Karen Wolfe, and Bill Adair at USU provided important technical help. The work at Ryer- son University was done under the supervision of Dr. Bhagwant Persaud with the assistance of Craig Lyon, Research Associate. The work at the University of Wisconsin and later at Texas A&M University was done under the supervision of Dr. Keith Knapp with the assistance of Ethan Shaw Schowalter-Hay. The work done by Sylvan Consulting, Ltd. was accomplished by Nancy Newhouse and Trevor Kinley. Work per- formed at the Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University was done by Dr. Anthony Clevenger with the assistance of Amanda Hardy and Kari Gunson. Sandra Jacobson, Wildlife Biologist, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Redwood Sciences Lab, Pacific Southwest Research Sta- tion, and Ingrid Brakop, Coordinator (former), Material Damage Loss Prevention, Insurance Corpora- tion of British Columbia, provided significant input to the evaluation of Task 3, and Ms. Jacobson pro- vided critical help with the Interactive Decision Guide. Lead authors for report sections are as follows: Sections 2.2 and 2.3: Patricia C. Cramer and John A. Bissonette Section 3.1: Keith Knapp, Bhagwant Persaud, Craig Lyon, and Ethan Shaw Schowalter-Hay Sections 3.2 and 3.3, and Appendix E: Anthony P. Clevenger, Amanda Hardy, and Kari Gunson Section 3.4: John A. Bissonette, Silvia Rosa, and Carrie O'Brien (Utah); Nancy Newhouse and Trevor Kinley (British Columbia) Sections 3.5 and 3.6: John A. Bissonette We appreciate the access to the Kootenay River Ranch property provided by D. Hillary and T. Ennis of the Nature Conservancy of Canada. Research for the British Columbia segment of the study on the influ- ence of roads on small mammals (Section 3.4) was conducted under permit CB05-9954 issued by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. Dr. H. Schwantje of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection was helpful in obtaining a provincial research permit. We thank C. Kassar, D. Ferreria, R. Klafki, T. McAllister, and H. Page for help with field work and species identification. Many thanks to Bill Adair for his help with the hierarchical monothetic agglomerative clustering analy- sis discussed in Section 3.5. The following list provides the affiliations of all authors who contributed to this report: Utah State University, U.S. Geological Survey-- Montana State University Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Anthony P. Clevenger John A. Bissonette Amanda Hardy Patricia C. Cramer Kari Gunson Silvia Rosa Carrie O'Brien University of WisconsinMadison Paul Jones Keith K. Knapp Jamey Anderson Ethan Shaw Schowalter-Hay Brian Jennings Karen G. Wolfe

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Ryerson University U.S. Forest Service Bhagwant Persaud Sandra Jacobson Craig Lyon Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Sylvan Consulting, Ltd. Ingrid Brakop Nancy Newhouse Trevor Kinley

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FOREWORD By Christopher J. Hedges Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report documents the development of an interactive, web-based decision guide pro- tocol for the selection, configuration, and location of wildlife crossings. For the first time, transportation planners and designers and wildlife ecologists have access to clearly written, structured guidelines to help reduce loss of property and life due to wildlifevehicle colli- sions, while protecting wildlife and their habitat. The guidelines were based on goals and needs identified and prioritized by transportation professionals from across North America, and developed using the results of five parallel scientific studies. Every year, the costs of personal injuries and property damage resulting from wildlife vehicle collisions are considerable and increasing. Various means have been employed to mitigate these collisions, with varying degrees of success. In recent years, highway agencies have also placed a growing emphasis on protecting the environment. While many smaller species of animals do not pose a threat to vehicles through collisions, they experience sig- nificant habitat loss and fragmentation as a result of roadway alignments. Transportation corridors limit the natural movement of wildlife, affecting individual species and eco- systems. There has been considerable research on the provision of wildlife crossings, but there is a lack of data on their effectiveness and on the methods most effective for reducing wildlifevehicle collisions and increasing landscape permeability for species in specific land- scapes. It also appears that crossings may work well for one species but not for others. An international scan on wildlife habitat connectivity documented various strategies and designs used in Europe to improve the connectivity of wildlife habitats. Developing success- ful designs, methods, and strategies to make roadways more permeable to wildlife is but one aspect of managing highways to avoid or minimize affects to the natural environment and maintaining safety for motorists. This study was undertaken to provide state DOTs with guidance on the use and effectiveness of wildlife crossings to mitigate habitat fragmentation and reduce the number of animalvehicle collisions on our roadways. Under NCHRP Project 25-27, a research team led by John Bissonette and Patricia Cramer of Utah State University developed guidelines for the selection, configuration, location, monitoring, evaluation, and maintenance of wildlife crossings. The research was split into two phases. In the first phase, the team reviewed research and current practices, and con- ducted a survey of more than 400 respondents on existing wildlife crossings across the United States and Canada. In the second phase, a number of research studies were con- ducted: an analysis of wildlifevehicle collision data, a study on the accuracy of spatial modeling tools used to predict the influence of roadway geometry on wildlifevehicle col- lisions, modeling of collision hotspots, a study on the influence of roads on small mammals, and an analysis of the spacing of crossings needed to restore fragmented habitat and migra-

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tion patterns. Based on the results, the research team developed an interactive web-based decision guide protocol offering guidance on the selection, configuration, and location of crossing types, along with suggestions for their monitoring, evaluation, and maintenance. The decision tool is outlined in the report and can be found on the web at www.wildlifeand roads.org and on the AASHTO website (environment.transportation.org/environmental_ issues/wildlife_roads/decision_guide/manual).

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 10 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Approach 10 Introduction 12 Research Approach 13 Structure of the Report 15 Chapter 2 Phase 1 Summary 15 2.1 Literature Search and Database 15 2.2 The State of the Practice and Science of Wildlife Crossings in North America 15 Introduction 16 Research Approach: Methods and Data 16 Findings and Results 16 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 20 Conclusions and Suggested Research 21 2.3 Priorities in Research and Practice 21 Introduction 21 Research Approach: Methods and Data 23 Findings and Results 27 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 28 Conclusions and Suggested Research 30 Chapter 3 Phase 2 Segments 30 3.1 Safety Data Analysis Aspects 30 Introduction 31 Research Approach: Methods and Data 35 Findings and Results 44 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 50 Conclusions and Suggested Research 53 3.2 Limiting Effects of Roadkill Reporting Data Due to Spatial Inaccuracy 53 Introduction 53 Research Approach: Methods and Data 57 Findings and Results 59 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 62 Conclusions and Suggested Research 62 3.3 Hotspots Modeling 62 Introduction 63 Research Approach: Methods and Data 64 Findings and Results 74 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 75 Conclusions

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76 3.4 Influence of Roads on Small Mammals 76 Introduction 77 Research Approach: Methods and Data 80 Findings and Results 85 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 86 Conclusions 86 3.5 Restoring Habitat Networks with Allometrically Scaled Wildlife Crossings 86 Introduction 87 Research Approach: Methods and Data 90 Findings and Results 93 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 94 Conclusions 96 3.6 Interpretation of Research Results 98 Chapter 4 Decision Guide 110 References 118 Appendix A Priority Tables and Plan of Action 132 Appendix B Application of Safety Performance Functions in Other States or Time Periods 135 Appendix C Theoretical Background of Network Screening for Proportion Method 137 Appendix D Illustrating Regression to the Mean 139 Appendix E A Literature Review of Field Studies and Spatial Analyses for Hotspot Identification of WildlifeVehicle Collisions 157 Appendix F Distance Sampling 159 Appendix G Allometric Scaling