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OCR for page 159
159 APPENDIX G Allometric Scaling Table 45 shows North American terrestrial mammals scal- with a Euclidean distance measure to produce a hierarchical ing distances grouped by linear [ HR (mi)] movement do- monothetic agglomerative clustering.162 mains (gray-shaded column), using Ward's linkage method

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160 Table 45. North American terrestrial mammals scaling distances. HR MedDDb a 2 Common name (Genus species) HR (ha) HR (mi ) (mi) (mi) Clustering Classes > 11 milesc wolverine (Gulo gulo) 150000.00 579.1500 24.07 168.46 < 11 10.71 mountain lion (Felis concolor) 29733.33 114.8004 10.71 75.00 7.15 miles fisher (Martes pennanti) 20342.49 78.5424 8.86 62.04 wolf (Canis lupus) 20276.88 78.2890 8.85 61.94 < 7.15 miles 3.05 miles grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) 9283.13 35.8422 5.99 41.91 coyote (Canis latrans) 7597.57 29.3342 5.42 37.91 black bear (Ursus americana) 2413.09 9.3169 3.05 21.37 < 3.05 1.07 miles arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) 2080.00 8.0309 2.83 19.84 lynx (Lynx canadensis)d 1852.40 7.1521 2.67 18.72 bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) d 1433.40 5.5344 2.35 16.47 elk (Cervus elaphus) d 1292.54 4.9905 2.23 15.64 moose (Alces alces) 1215.00 4.6911 2.17 15.16 pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) 1060.47 4.0945 2.02 14.16 badger (Taxidea taxus) 849.87 3.2813 1.81 12.68 swift fox (Vulpes velox) 793.02 3.0619 1.75 12.25 antelope jackrabbit (Lepus alleni) 642.82 2.4819 1.58 11.03 prairie red fox (Vulpes vulpes fulva/regalis) 409.76 1.5821 1.26 8.80 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 387.34 1.4955 1.22 8.56 bobcat (Lynx rufus) 320.82 1.2387 1.11 7.79 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) 294.67 1.1377 1.07 7.47 < 1.07 0.16 miles mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) 285.27 1.1014 1.05 7.35 American marten (Martes americana) 209.31 0.8081 0.90 6.29 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) 196.06 0.7570 0.87 6.09 black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) 145.55 0.5620 0.75 5.25 collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) 135.21 0.5220 0.72 5.06 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) 122.00 0.4710 0.69 4.80 long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) 111.29 0.4297 0.66 4.59 raccoon (Procyon lotor) 113.73 0.4391 0.66 4.64 ringtail cat (Bassariscus astutus) 87.75 0.3388 0.58 4.07 California black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) 79.44 0.3067 0.55 3.88 black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) 58.85 0.2272 0.48 3.34 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) 59.88 0.2312 0.48 3.37 coati (Nasua narica) 55.00 0.2124 0.46 3.23 cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) 44.50 0.1718 0.41 2.90 short-tailed weasel, ermine (Mustela erminea) 20.64 0.0797 0.28 1.98 American mink (Mustela vison) 14.10 0.0544 0.23 1.63 porcupine (Erithizon dorsatum) 11.29 0.0436 0.21 1.46 mountain western American chipmunk (Tamias quadrivittatus) 6.73 0.0260 0.16 1.13 least weasel (Mustela nivalis) 6.75 0.0261 0.16 1.13 < 0.16 miles snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) 5.93 0.0229 0.15 1.06 flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans/sabrinus) 4.14 0.0160 0.13 0.89 west central U.S. chipmunk (Tamias umbrinus) 4.55 0.0176 0.13 0.93 grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) 3.62 0.0140 0.12 0.83 desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii) 3.18 0.0123 0.11 0.78 western and Siberian American chipmunk (Tamias minimus) 2.10 0.0081 0.09 0.63 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) 2.12 0.0082 0.09 0.63 eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) 1.62 0.0063 0.08 0.55 pine squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii) 1.10 0.0042 0.07 0.46 red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) 1.10 0.0042 0.07 0.46 kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) 1.29 0.0050 0.07 0.49 creeping vole, Oregon vole (Microtus oregoni) 0.81 0.0031 0.06 0.39 white-footed deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus gracilis) 0.81 0.0031 0.06 0.39

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161 Table 45. (Continued). HR MedDDb a 2 Common name (Genus species) HR (ha) HR (mi ) (mi) (mi) gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) 0.95 0.0037 0.06 0.42 pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) d 0.58 0.0022 0.05 0.33 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) 0.66 0.0025 0.05 0.35 pika (Ochotona princes) 0.35 0.0014 0.04 0.26 American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii) 0.41 0.0016 0.04 0.28 short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) 0.43 0.0017 0.04 0.29 New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis) 0.46 0.0018 0.04 0.30 collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) 0.20 0.0008 0.03 0.19 red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi) 0.25 0.0010 0.03 0.22 brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani) 0.28 0.0011 0.03 0.23 western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) 0.30 0.0012 0.03 0.24 yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) 0.31 0.0012 0.03 0.24 pocket mouse (Perognathus longimembris) 0.31 0.0012 0.03 0.24 western American mole (Scapanus townsendii) 0.10 0.0004 0.02 0.14 long-tailed shrew (Sorex vagrans) 0.11 0.0004 0.02 0.14 prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) 0.11 0.0004 0.02 0.14 eastern American chipmunk (Tamias striatus) 0.11 0.0004 0.02 0.14 meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) 0.12 0.0005 0.02 0.15 tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus) 0.16 0.0006 0.02 0.17 northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) 0.02 0.0001 0.01 0.06 bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi) 0.05 0.0002 0.01 0.09 a HR = Home Range b MedDD = Median Dispersal Distance (7 HR) c These are allometric distance domains established by the clustering technique d Corrected scientific names to currently accepted usage