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30 CHAPTER 3 Phase 2 Segments 3.1 Safety Data Analysis Aspects envisioned as a set of software guides used by state and local highway agencies for safety management and to improve Introduction their programming of site-specific safety improvements. This research segment covers the work done for the safety SafetyAnalyst incorporates state-of-the-art safety manage- data analysis aspects of the project. Throughout this report ment approaches into computer-based analytical guides to aid the words "collision" and "crash" are used interchangeably. the decision-making process to identify safety improvement The broad objectives of this project required an analysis of needs and develop a systemwide program of site-specific WVCs and road environment data from state DOT sources. improvement projects. The general objectives of this research Specifically, the planned purpose of the safety analysis was to address three general aims: produce results that would assist with the development of guidelines on: 1. Identify collision-prone locations for existing or proposed roads for all collision types combined or for specific target Methods for identifying WVC problem locations, collision types; The evaluation of the safety effectiveness of crossing miti- 2. Aid in the evaluation, selection, and prioritization of gation measures, potential mitigation measures; and The establishment of a monitoring program to facilitate the 3. Evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation measures already identification of collision-prone locations and the evaluation implemented. of crossing mitigation measures, and Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness considerations. Meeting these objectives requires the use of state-of-the-art statistical methods (e.g., predictive negative binomial models The following sections document efforts towards developing and empirical Bayes procedures) to produce a widely accepted these guidelines. The two aspects to the safety research, and usable guide that can be readily applied by DOTs in their although linked, are summarized separately: completion of items 1 and 2 for animalvehicle collisions and to provide initial insights as part of a framework for future Aspect 1: The application of reported WVC data typically research to make additional progress on item 3 with respect to available in state DOT databases and wildlife crossings. It is expected that results of this research Aspect 2: An investigation of how the application of two project, specifically the predictive models developed, can be databases, reported WVCs and carcass removals, can lead applied within SafetyAnalyst in undertaking tasks 1, 2, and 3 to different roadway improvement decisions above with respect to wildlifevehicle collisions. Aspect 1: Application of Reported WildlifeVehicle Aspect 2: Comparison of WildlifeVehicle Collision Collision Data and Carcass Removal Data The general objectives of the research undertaken for this Reported WVC data may represent only a small portion of aspect are consistent with those of SafetyAnalyst (www. the large number of WVCs that occur61,201. A second type of, a safety management guide being devel- data, obtained from records of carcass removals, has also been oped by the FHWA for use by DOTs. SafetyAnalyst is used to describe the WVC problem and determine the need