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98 CHAPTER 4 Decision Guide The final product of this research is an interactive decision ing wildlife safely over, under, and across transportation guide that provides clearly written guidelines for the selec- corridors (Step 2.1); how to place that mitigation (Step 2.2); tion, configuration, and location of crossing types, as well as how to determine configuration (Step 2.3); how to deter- suggestions for the monitoring and evaluation of crossing ef- mine maintenance needs (Step 2.4); how to begin a cost- fectiveness, and their maintenance. The interactive decision effectiveness analysis (Step 2.5); and how to determine guide can be found at the URL http://wildlifeandroads.org. monitoring and the evaluation plan (Step 2.6). Each of the The basic outline of the interactive decision guide is hierar- six second-level steps can be clicked for third-level informa- chical. The user can use the Navigation Box to enter the site tion germane to that step. Step 2 is accessible by clicking the at any step. The hyperlink for each step is located within the Step 2 "Identify Solutions" box and the page shown in box of each step. The outline of the Guide is shown in Fig- Figure 44 appears. ure 39. Clicking on "What should I know?" under Site Naviga- Any of the steps can be accessed for additional informa- tion takes users to a page where they can learn about the wildlife tion. For example, if Step 2.1 is clicked, these third order steps issues they need to consider in a road project (Figure 40). appear, each with accessible additional information: If the user is familiar with these issues, the logical starting place is the Decision Guide. When "The Decision Guide" link 2.1.1 Identify Species to Benefit from Potential Mitigation is clicked under Site Navigation, the Decision Guide 2.1.2 Identify Ecological Processes (Water Flow, Animal Overview (Figure 39) appears. When the Step 1 "Resource Movement, Other) Evaluation" box is clicked, Figure 41 appears. 2.1.3 Identify Landscape and Topographic Features that When the cursor passes over each of the boxes or triangles May Affect Movement and Migration (1.1, 1.2, and 1.3), the user will see a description of Step 1 with 2.1.4 Identify Engineering and Maintenance Concerns its three substeps: 1.1 Identify Scope of Transportation 2.1.5 Weigh Cost Concerns with Potential Benefits Plan/Project, 1.2 Identify Wildlife and Fisheries Issues, and 1.3 2.1.6 Identify Appropriate General Wildlife Crossing If a Mitigation Need: Identify Goals and Objectives. Also in- Type cluded on the page are links to other helpful websites. Similarly, 2.1.7 Other Mitigation Options Figure 42 appears when the box for step 1.1 is clicked. 2.1.8 References The user can scroll down though the step to view the rest of the information. The other steps are accessed in a similar Step 3, Select and Create a Plan, is a decision node where all way. For example, when the box for step 1.2 is clicked, the the information from previous steps are integrated into the user will see the page as shown in Figure 43. larger planning and decision-making process. If the planning Again, the user can scroll down to see the rest of the level is controlled by the National Environmental Policy Act information. (NEPA) process, then Step 3 corresponds to the Record of Step 2, Identify Solutions, is the centerpiece of the inter- Decision or Decision Notice. Each agency will have its own active decision guide. Step 2 is where detailed guidance is procedure. The major product of Step 3 is a decision on the mit- provided to users for the selection, configuration, and loca- igation appropriate for the project. When the user clicks the tion of wildlife crossings and their monitoring for effective- Step 3 diamond (a decision node), Figure 45 appears. ness and maintenance. Six second-level steps are provided Each substep of Step 3 is linked and provides detailed in- where users can learn about the types of mitigation for pass- formation on documenting decisions in the Implementation

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99 Figure 39. Interactive Decision Guide Overview. Plan, developing maintenance agreements, and identifying an The following classes of data are linked to the query func- implementation liaison. tions (Figure 48). For example, all the pictures on the website When the user clicks on the Step 4 "Construction" box, have linked key words so that a query asking about specific Figure 46 appears. Construction is the beginning of the im- species, places, or crossing types will return pictures that plementation phase of the project and after the crossing has match the query. Hence, a picture of a wildlife crossing for un- been built, a monitoring and evaluation phase, often neglected gulates, which is along a stream and currently under con- when road projects are built, begins. Only through monitor- struction in Montana, is linked with the query functions by ing and evaluating performance against a priori expectations any of the following key words: ungulate, deer, elk, moose, of performance, e.g., successful passage of the intended Montana, construction, riparian. species, can biologists and engineers understand what cross- A dynamic part of this website is the ability to search data- ings work and what need modifications. bases for pertinent information. The search engine is accessi- When the user clicks on the Step 5 "Monitor & Evaluate" ble from the Site Navigation sidebar by clicking on "Search box, Figure 47 appears. The user can scroll down to read the Engine" (Figure 49). rest of the information contained on the page and can click Two query fields (state/prov, keyword) allow users to find on the icons for Steps 5.1, 5.2, and 5.3 for pertinent informa- multiple links of related articles, pictures, databases, and web- tion on Adaptive Management. sites by place or keyword. For example, if the user searches for

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100 Figure 40. What should I know?

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101 Figure 41. Step 1, resource evaluation, of the Decision Guide. "Utah" and "deer," the results shown in Figure 50 (first page by the supervisor of the website and possibly a committee of shown only) are returned. professionals who can verify the accuracy of the new material. A unique property of this site is the "My Saved Files" feature. This ability leads to a dynamic website that is continually This feature allows the user to transfer website addresses into a being updated in an ever changing world. final folder of products that can be downloaded. Users can give For a better comprehension of the interactive decision an article or webpage a cursory glance and then save it in their guide, and the site overall, the research team recommends the final list of products to view and download later once they have reader visit the website: www.wildlifeandroads.org. As an ex- finished with the website. Instructions for using the "My Saved ercise in using the interactive decision guide, the research Files" feature can be accessed by clicking on the "What should team has suggested a series of steps on the site a first time user I know?" link in the Site Navigation sidebar. See Figure 40. may want to follow in order to get an understanding of how Another benefit of the website is the ability of users to sub- this process will proceed. The "What Should I Know?" link is mit case histories and data. This information will be reviewed the recommended initial step.

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102 Figure 42. Step 1.1.1 of the Decision Guide.

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103 Figure 43. Step 1.2 of the Decision Guide and associated hierarchy.

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104 Figure 44. Step 2, identify solutions, of the Decision Guide.

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105 Figure 45. Step 3, select and create plan, of the Decision Guide.

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106 Figure 46. Step 4, construction, of the Decision Guide.

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107 Figure 47. Step 5, monitor and evaluate, of the Decision Guide. Figure 48. Classes of databases in the Decision Guide Query Function that are linked.

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108 Figure 49. Search engine.

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109 Figure 50. Example of the Decision Guide search engine results for Utah.