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52 7.3 Generation of Project 2. A Toolbox for Alleviating Traffic Congestion and Enhancing Alternatives for Analysis Mobility (1997). This document provides local elected officials, busi- The analyst should consult one or more of the following ness leaders, and other community leaders with infor- references for strategies and actions that are appropriate for mation on traffic congestion and strategies that can be reducing travel time, delay, and variability. Exhibits 7.1 and used to deal with it. Types of strategies discussed include 7.2 highlight some of the actions and strategies discussed in increasing transportation capacity (both through these references, but should not be considered a replacement widening or expansion of roads, and new techniques for consulting these references. such as ITS), public transportation, demand manage- 1. Unclogging Arterials: Prescriptions for Relieving Conges- ment, and funding and other institutional issues. For tion and Improving Safety on Major Local Roadways each strategy, the report provides a description, the es- (FHWA-OP-03-069) (2003). timated costs and benefits, steps needed to implement it This guidebook presents 15 strategies for increasing mo- successfully, and a detailed bibliography. Available at bility and safety of travel on arterial streets. The guidebook http://www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov/jpodocs/repts_te/5dz01! also contains 10 case studies of local agencies that have em- .pdf, EDL# 6983. ployed these strategies, an action checklist and appendices Also available: Michael D. Meyer, A Toolbox For Alle- showing example documents, such as memoranda of un- viating Traffic Congestion And Enhancing Mobility, In- derstanding and city legislation that readers can use as mod- stitute Of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., els in their own areas. Contact the Operations/ITS Helpline, 1996 (available at http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/8000/8700/8780/ (866) 367-7487 or firstname.lastname@example.org. toolbox.pdf). Problem Likely Cause Solution Strategies Improvement Alternatives Excessive Peak-Period Peak Demand > Capacity Travel Demand Management to shift Establish TDM Program for Delay (on average day demand to other corridors, other Employers without incidents) time periods, and/or other modes. Staggered work hours Construct Transit improvements Increased transit service Construct HOV lanes Carpool parking Construct bypass for bottleneck(s) Peak-hour tolls Auto restricted zones Service vehicle hour restrictions Parking supply management Concierge shopping services Satellite work stations Work at Home Program Ramp and signal metering Increase capacity at bottlenecks. Add lanes Change signal timing Correct substandard geometry Allow peak period shoulder lane use Reversible lanes Peak period turn prohibitions Ramp metering Heavy vehicle restrictions Exhibit 7.1. Alternative improvements to solve delay problems.