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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 7 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond UCG Associates Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, John K. Duval Charlottesville Beverly Municipal Airport Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Steve Grossman Oakland International Airport Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Tom Jensen Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento National Safe Skies Alliance Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Catherine M. Lang Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Federal Aviation Administration Technology, Atlanta Gina Marie Lindsey Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Los Angeles World Airports Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Carolyn Motz Hagerstown Regional Airport Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Richard Tucker Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Huntsville International Airport Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Sabrina Johnson C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Richard Marchi Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Henry Ogrodzinski Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC National Association of State Aviation Officials Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA American Association of Airport Executives Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, Transportation Research Board National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT SECRETARY LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Christopher W. Jenks Interior, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2008. *Membership as of May 2008.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 7 Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis Ezra Wood Scott Herndon Richard Miake-Lye David Nelson AERODYNE RESEARCH, INC. Billerica, MA Mara Seeley ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & ENGINEERING, INC. Needham, MA Subject Areas Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 7 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 02-03 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN: 978-0-309-11745-6 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2008932420 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2008 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 7 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christine L. Gerencher, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 02-03 PANEL Field of Environment Renee L. Dowlin, Portland (OR) International Airport (Chair) Alison Bird, Federal Express Corporation, Mesa, AZ Brian Kim, Wyle Laboratories, Inc., Woodstock, GA Robert P. Newman, EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., Sparks, MD Saleem Sattar, Transport Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Mary L. Vigilante, Synergy Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA Mohan Gupta, FAA Liaison Marion Hoyer, EPA Liaison Sabrina Johnson, EPA Liaison Tim A. Pohle, Air Transport Association of America, Inc., Washington, DC Jessica Steinhilber, Airports Council InternationalNorth America, Washington, DC

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FOREWORD By Christine L. Gerencher Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 7: Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis provides guidance on the most important projects to the airport community for ACRP consideration in the area of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This report examines the state of the latest research on aviation-related HAP emissions and identifies knowledge gaps that existing research has not yet bridged. These gaps and related research needs are then prioritized based on the ability of research in those areas to provide airports a better understanding of the relationship of the type and amount of HAPs being emitted and their impacts. While the main purpose of this report is to identify key research areas important to the airport community for ACRP consideration, research communities at large will also benefit from this report's comprehensive analysis of aviation-related HAP research needs. Increasingly, airports and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are asked by vari- ous agencies and communities surrounding airports to analyze the health impacts of air- craft and other airport-related sources of air toxics, also known as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and state-level documents. How- ever, unlike criteria air pollutants, information on the emission, transformation, and trans- port of aviation-related HAPs and their health impacts is extremely rudimentary. Without a better understanding of aviation HAP emissions, airports are unable to develop accurate inventories and are left with little guidance on how to provide their state and local con- stituencies with the information they are increasingly demanding. It became evident during the development of this report that there is a great deal of research that needs to be done in this area, particularly to get more robust health impact data on HAPs and to quantifying the emissions from the various sources in the airport envi- ronment. The prioritization of research needs in this report, therefore, was based on the contributions the airport community could provide to the field of aviation-related HAPs analysis while giving the airport community critical pieces of information to assist them in conducting more thorough and accurate HAP emissions inventories. ACRP Report 7 concludes with identification of four suggested research projects for ACRP consideration, including detailed problem statements for submittal through the ACRP solicitation process. The research projects outlined in these statements provide a blueprint to bridge those critical research gaps identified in the report, which will benefit airports by improving the accuracy of information used in HAP emissions inventories.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Section 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Report Motivation 3 1.2 Report Overview 3 1.3 Background Information on Hazardous Air Pollutants 4 1.4 Approach Used for Identifying Information Gaps Associated with Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants 5 1.5 Main Findings 7 1.6 Prioritized Research Agenda 9 Section 2 Integration of Emission Rates with Toxicology-- Prioritization of Airport Hazardous Air Pollutants 13 Section 3 Relative Contribution of Airport-Related Volatile Organic Compound Emissions 15 3.1 Source Apportionment 19 Section 4 Health Effects of Aviation-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants 19 4.1 Health Effects Associated with Aviation-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants 20 4.2 Evaluation of Chronic Health Effects for Aviation-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants 24 4.3 Calculation of Risk-Based Concentrations for Chronic Health Effects 25 4.4 Evaluation of Acute Exposures for Aviation-Related HAPs 27 Section 5 Emission Factors and Activity Factors 27 5.1 Aircraft 34 5.2 Airport Operations 37 Section 6 Ambient Hazardous Air Pollutant Measurements 37 6.1 Hazardous Air Pollutants Concentrations Inside the Airport 37 6.2 Hazardous Air Pollutants Concentrations on Airport Grounds 37 6.3 Hazardous Air Pollutants Concentrations in Adjacent Neighborhoods 40 Section 7 Airport Dispersion Models and Predictions 40 7.1 Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System 42 Section 8 Crucial Knowledge Gaps 42 8.1 Emissions-Related Knowledge Gaps 43 8.2 Dispersion Models and the Atmospheric Evolution of Hazardous Air Pollutants 43 8.3 Health Effects of Specific Hazardous Air Pollutants

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45 Section 9 Problem Statements 45 9.1 Dependence of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Idling Aircraft on Ambient Conditions 46 9.2 Characterization of Operational Thrust Levels 47 9.3 Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from General Aviation Aircraft 48 9.4 Identification of the Emission Sources Most Important to On-Airport and Off-Airport Exposure 49 Section 10 References 53 Section 11 Example Search History (Using Web of Science and Google Scholar) 55 Abbreviations and Acronyms