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3 SECTION 1 Introduction 1.1 Report Motivation aviation researchers and airport operators. These searches yielded information in several forms including articles pub- Understanding the emission sources, ambient concentra- lished in the peer-reviewed literature, available emission tions, human exposure parameters, and health risk factors of inventories, reports from recent aircraft emission measure- hazardous air pollutants associated with an airport is neces- ment campaigns, airport environmental impact statements, sary to fully protect the health of personnel working at the air- and unpublished data (recent experimental results that are port, minimize exposure for the traveling public, and avoid not yet published and emissions data collected by airport op- adverse impacts on the air quality of nearby neighborhoods. erators). Our findings are used to create a prioritized research The goal of this project is to produce a prioritized agenda for agenda that will address the identified information gaps. future research that will address critical information gaps as- sociated with airport-related hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). 1.3 Background Information on Hazardous Air Pollutants 1.2 Report Overview The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has six A literature review was conducted on the following topics: designated "criteria" air pollutants, which are known to be damaging to public health: ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), · Aircraft/airport HAP emission factors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), and · Airport activity and fuel use factors, particulate matter (PM). There is a national network of moni- · Related ambient HAP concentrations, toring stations that make continuous measurements of these · Dispersion modeling of airport emissions, and pollutants. The concentrations of these pollutants must not ex- · Toxicology of aviation-related HAPs. ceed pre-set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) established by EPA to protect public health and welfare. This information was used to In addition to the criteria pollutants, there are more than one hundred other air pollutants that are either known or · Assess the current state of knowledge regarding airport- suspected to be hazardous. These are known as "hazardous related HAPs, air pollutants" or HAPs, or alternately "air toxics." Two com- · Identify the information gaps that limit our ability to assess monly known examples are benzene and formaldehyde. As fully the impact of airport HAP emissions on human dictated by the Clean Air Act, the EPA maintains a list of these health, HAPs. Additionally, for mobile source emissions the EPA · Determine which compounds are likely to present the maintains a "Master List of Compounds Emitted by Mobile most risk to human health, and Sources," which is available at www.epa.gov/otaq/toxics.htm. · Determine which aviation-related emission sources are Aside from federal standards, many individual states also most significant. have programs governing emissions of HAPs. In many in- stances, the list of state HAPs differs with the USEPA desig- The literature survey drew on several sources including: nation. The nature and structure of these programs differ (1) Boolean searches using Google Scholar and Web of considerably from state to state. Measurements of ambient Science, and (2) communication (telephone/email) with HAP concentrations are not as widespread as those of the