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47 VII. RELATED RESEARCH general aviation aircraft. This project would support See ACRP 02-03 report. We are aware of some limited HAP emissions measurements of general aviation work in progress through the FAA/Partner research aircraft such as those employing piston engines, turbo- program. The product of that research we know of is jet engines, and low-bypass turbofan engines (such as an assessment of the impact of reduced thrust take-off business jets). This information will be most impor- on NOx emissions. We are unaware of an effort to tant at general aviation airports. apply real-world thrust profiles to the hazardous air pollutant emissions. IV. RESEARCH PROPOSED This project would measure the emission rates of VIII. PERSON(S) DEVELOPING THE PROBLEM various HAPs compounds from general aviation air- ACRP Project 02-03, PI: David Nelson craft. The project should quantify HAP emissions (, 978-663-9500). from a wide variety of in-service general aviation air- craft. It will be important to make measurements as IX. PROCESS USED TO DEVELOP PROBLEM a function of engine type and operational mode (idle, STATEMENT taxi, take-off). It is envisioned that this will require ACRP Project 02-03 making measurements at more than one airport. It is essential that the engine type and operational mode X. DATE AND SUBMITTED BY be determined during these measurements to allow ACRP Project 02-03, December 20, 2007, PI: David these measurement results to be incorporated in Nelson (, 978-663-9500). models that airport operators can use to estimate their emissions. 9.3 HAP Emissions from General Aviation Aircraft V. ESTIMATE OF THE PROBLEM FUNDING AND RESEARCH PERIOD AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH Recommended Funding: $400,000 to $500,000 PROGRAM PROBLEM STATEMENT Research Period: 18 to 24 months I. PROBLEM TITLE VI. URGENCY AND PAYOFF POTENTIAL HAP emissions from general aviation aircraft This research will provide much needed measure- ments of HAP emission from in-service general II. RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT aviation aircraft. Frequently, general aviation airport operators are The results of this research will be used to produce asked to estimate the magnitude of toxic emissions more accurate emissions estimates for general avia- from airport-related sources. These requests may come tion aircraft. These estimates will be more defensible from government officials, courts, or concerned com- and better able to withstand litigation since they will munity groups. One of the key categories of potentially be based on the latest scientific findings regarding toxic emissions is Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) HAP emissions from general aviation aircraft. emissions. HAP emission from general aviation air- craft are currently difficult to estimate because they VII. RELATED RESEARCH have not been well studied and because there is no See ACRP 02-03 report. engine emission certification requirement for most general aviation aircraft. This is due to the relatively small size of their engines. Hence, HAP emissions (with VIII. PERSON(S) DEVELOPING THE PROBLEM the exception of lead) from aircraft piston engines, ACRP Project 02-03, PI: David Nelson turbojet engines, and low-bypass turbofan engines (, 978-663-9500). (such as business jets) are largely unknown and should be quantified. In order to properly estimate airport IX. PROCESS USED TO DEVELOP PROBLEM HAP emissions from general aviation aircraft it is nec- STATEMENT essary to study these emissions with in-service aircraft. ACRP Project 02-03 III. OBJECTIVE X. DATE AND SUBMITTED BY The goal of this project would be to improve our ACRP Project 02-03, December 20, 2007, PI: David quantitative understanding of HAP emissions from Nelson (, 978-663-9500).