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48 9.4 Identification of the Emission Conclusive deduction of source apportionment will Sources Most Important require coordinated measurements of the main com- to On-Airport and bustion gases (CO2, CO, NO, NO2), speciated HAPs Off-Airport Exposure (e.g., benzene, formaldehyde, etc.) and PM (charac- terized by number/size, mass, and chemical composi- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH tion). Source apportionment is required to evaluate PROGRAM PROBLEM STATEMENT proposed emissions mitigation strategies. This proj- ect will help airport operators to identify the "low- I. PROBLEM TITLE hanging fruit" with regards to minimizing the health Identification of the emission sources most important risk presented by the various emission sources pres- to on-airport and off-airport exposures ent at an airport. This research will necessarily involve the integration II. RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT of measurements and models over multiple spatial Airports are an easily identified source of emissions and temporal scales. Different exposure groups being within an urban or suburban setting. The emissions considered may require different model, inventory, at airports come from jet engines, ground support ve- and measurement demands. The exposure of a curb- hicles, the airport facilities themselves and from side check-in worker is very different from that of ground access vehicles arriving at or departing from ground support workers. The proposed research will the airport grounds. Due to the high visibility of the identify the exposure groups to be evaluated and airport and the activity it supports, it is frequently develop appropriate assessments for each. challenged to provide a self-assessment of its emis- sions and impact on the surrounding neighborhoods V. ESTIMATE OF THE PROBLEM FUNDING AND and environment. The emissions at airports are spa- RESEARCH PERIOD tially inhomogenous, vary diurnally, and very likely Recommended Funding: $500,000-$750,000 have seasonal dependence. As a result, annual tabula- Research Period: 24-36 months tion of net emissions, summing multiple sources is not adequate to understand what emissions sources VI. URGENCY AND PAYOFF POTENTIAL influence exposure. Successful execution of the proposed work will gain a genuine understanding of how airport emissions III. OBJECTIVE affect different exposure groups. The purpose of this project is to identify which emis- sion sources (aircraft, GSE, terminal traffic, etc.) most VII. RELATED RESEARCH greatly affect potential receptors (e.g., nearby resi- See ACRP 02-03 report. dents, airport-based workers, passengers). This will include apportionment among the various airport VIII. PERSON(S) DEVELOPING THE PROBLEM sources (e.g., aircraft, GSE, GAV) and non-airport ACRP Project 02-03, PI: David Nelson sources. Measurements used in conjunction with pre- (, 978-663-9500). dictive models will provide a quantitative evaluation of the accuracy of models. Models used to predict the IX. PROCESS USED TO DEVELOP PROBLEM concentrations of HAPs near airports have not been STATEMENT adequately tested. ACRP Project 02-03 IV. RESEARCH PROPOSED X. DATE AND SUBMITTED BY This should be done using dispersion/chemistry ACRP Project 02-03, December 20, 2007, PI: David models tested against complementary measurements. Nelson (, 978-663-9500).