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49 SECTION 10 References Nontoxicology References Federal Aviation Administration. 2006. Inherently Low Emission Airport Vehicle Pilot Program. Federal Aviation Administration Office of Anderson, B. E., G. Chen, and D. R. Blake. 2006. Hydrocarbon Emis- Airports Community and Environmental Needs Division 24. sions from a Modern Commercial Airliner. Atmospheric Environ- GAO. 2003. Aviation and the Environment: Strategic Framework Needed ment 40(19): 36013612. to Address Challenges Posed by Aircraft Emissions. United States Arpey, G. 2007. Vantage Point: Pain at the Pump. American Way. May General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 2007. Gerstle, T., P. Virag, M. Wade, and L. Kimm. 1999. Aircraft Engine and Baughcum, S., T. Tritz, S. Henderson, and D. Pickett. 1996. Scheduled Auxiliary Power Unit Emissions Testing. United States Air Force Civil Aircraft Emission Inventories for 1992: Database Development IERA, Institute for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health and Analysis, NASA Contractor Report 4700, Contract NAS1- Risk Analysis. Risk Analysis Directorate, Environmental Analysis 19360. National Aeronautic and Space Administration, Langley Division, Brooks Air Force Base, TX. Research Center, Hampton, VA. April. Herndon, S. C., T. B. Onasch, et al. 2006. Aviation Engine Emissions Cadle, S. H., A. Ayala, K. Black, C. Fulper, R. Graze, F. Minassian, Characterization Using Wind-Advected Plumes. In Proceedings H. Murray, M. Natarajan, C. Tennant, and D. Lawson. 2007. Real- from APEX3 Conference, North Olmsted, OH. World Vehicle Emissions: A Summary of the Sixteenth Coordinat- Herndon, S. C., J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. Jayne, R. ing Research Council On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop. C. Brown, R. C. Miake-Lye, et al. 2004. NO and NO2 Emission Ra- Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 57(2): 139145. tios Measured from In-Use Commercial Aircraft during Taxi and CDM. 2003. Ambient Air Quality Human Health Risk Assessment for the Takeoff. Environmental Science & Technology 38(22): 60786084. Oakland International Airport, Port of Oakland Environmental Herndon, S. C., J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, J. Wormhoudt, D. D. Nel- Planning Department. son, K. L. Demerjian, and C. E. Kolb. 2005. Real-Time Measure- Celikel, A., N. Duchene, I. Fuller, E. Fleuti, and H. Hoffmann. 2005. Air- ments of SO2, H2CO, and CH4 Emissions from In-Use Curbside port Local Air Quality Modelling: Zurich Airport Emissions Inventory Passenger Buses in New York City Using a Chase Vehicle. Environ- Using Three Methodologies. Eurocontrol, Brussels, Belgium. mental Science & Technology 39(20): 79847990. Celikel, A., E. Fleuti, P. Hofmann, and M. Silue. 2003. Emissions Inven- Iavicoli, I., G. Carelli, and A. Bergamaschi. 2006. Exposure Evaluation tory for Lyon Saint Exupery Airport, Eurocontrol Experimental to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Italian Air- Center, Bretigny, France. port. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(8): Chevron. 2006. Aviation Fuels Technical Review (FTR-3). Houston, TX. 815822. City of Long Beach. 2005. Long Beach Airport Terminal Area Improve- Johnsson, J. and G. Washburn. 2006. Green Call Tugs at O'Hare. The ment Project Draft Environmental Impact Report. No. 3703. SCH Chicago Tribune, December 5. No. 200309112, Long Beach, CA. Klein, D. and C. Saraceni. 1994. Breathing Room: Emissions Standards Department of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administration. Testing in California. Reason Online. 2005. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for New Runways, KM Chng Environmental, Inc. 1999. Findings Regarding Source Contri- Terminal Facilities and Related Facilities at Washington Dulles bution to Soot Deposition, O'Hare International Airport and International Airport, Dulles, VA. Surrounding Communities. Burlington, MA. ENVIRON. 2000. Preliminary Study and Analysis of Toxic Air Pollutants KM Chng Environmental, Inc. 2005. Philadelphia International Airport, from O'Hare International Airport and the Resulting Health Risks Final Environmental Impact Statement, Runway 1735 Extension Created by These Toxic Emissions in Surrounding Residential Com- Project. Federal Aviation Administration. munities. Park Ridge, IL. Knighton, W. B., S. C. Herndon, E. Wood, M. Timko, J. Shorter, Farias, F. and H. ApSimon. 2006. Relative Contributions from Traffic P. Yelvington, R. Miake-Lye, and C. Wey. 2006. Analysis of Gas- and Aircraft NOx Emissions to Exposure in West London. Envi- Phase VOC Data Acquired on the Particle Probe. In Proceedings of ronmental Modelling & Software 21: 477485. APEX 3 Conference, North Olmsted, OH. Federal Aviation Administration. 2005. O'Hare Modernization Envi- Knighton, W. B., T. M. Rogers, B. E. Anderson, S. C. Herndon, P. E. ronmental Impact Statement. Federal Aviation Administration. Yelvington, and R. C. Miake-Lye. 2007. Quantification of Aircraft Great Lakes Region FAA. Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions Using Proton Transfer Reaction

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50 Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Propulsion and Power 23(5): VOC Emissions on the Air Quality of Zurich Airport. Atmospheric 949958. Environment 41(1): 103118. Landrum & Brown, I. 2007. Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Shen, T. and M. Lehnherr. 2001. Cancer Incidence in Populations Living Airport: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Federal Aviation Near Chicago O'Hare and Midway Airports, Illinois 19871997. Illi- Administration, Orlando, FL. nois Department of Public Health, Office of Epidemiology and Marchand, C., B. Buillot, S. Le Calve, and P. Mirabel. 2006. Aldehyde Health Systems Development, Div. of Epidemiologic Studies, Measurements in Indoor Environments in Strasbourg (France). Springfield, IL. Atmospheric Environment 40(7): 13361345. Slemr, F., H. Giehl, M. Habram, J. Slemr, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, McGulley, Frick and Gilman, Inc. 1995. Final Report: Air Quality Sur- P. Haschberger, E. Lindermeir, A. Doepelheuer, and M. Plohr. vey, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. Port of Seattle, WA. 2001. In-Flight Measurement of Aircraft CO and Nonmethane Miguel, A. H., T. W. Kirchstetter, R. A. Harley, and S. V. Hering. 1998. Hydrocarbon Emission Indices. Journal of Geophysical Research- On-Road Emissions of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar- Atmospheres 106(D7): 74857494. bons and Black Carbon from Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles. Envi- Spicer, C. W., M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, and T. F. Lyon. 1994. ronmental Science & Technology 32(4): 450455. Chemical-Composition and Photochemical Reactivity of Exhaust Miller, C. A., G. Hidy, J. Hales, C. E. Kolb, A. S. Werner, B. Haneke, from Aircraft Turbine-Engines. Annales Geophysicae-Atmospheres D. Parrish, et al. 2006. Air Emission Inventories in North America: Hydrospheres and Space Sciences 12(1011): 944955. A Critical Assessment. Journal of the Air & Waste Management As- Suppan, P. and J. Graf. 2000. The Impact of an Airport on Regional Air sociation 56(8): 11151129. Quality at Munich, Germany. International Journal of Environment Moussiopoulos, N., P. Sahm, K. Karatzas, S. Papalexiou, and A. Kara- and Pollution. 14(16): 375381. giannidis. 1997. Assessing the Impact of the New Athens Airport to Tradewind Scientific Ltd. 2006. Ambient Air Quality Study at Pearson Urban Air Quality with Contemporary Air Pollution Models. International Airport, Final Report. Transport Canada, Ottawa. Atmospheric Environment 31(10): 14971511. Unal, A., Y. Hu, M. E. Chang, M. T. Odman, and A. G. Russell. 2005. Municipality of Anchorage, Department of Health and Human Ser- Airport Related Emissions and Impacts on Air Quality: Application vices. 2003. Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport Air Toxics to the Atlanta International Airport. Atmospheric Environment Monitoring Study. Anchorage, Environmental Quality Program, 39(32): 57875798. Environmental Services Division: 19. URS Corp. 2003. Select Resource Materials and Annotated Bibliography Ng, N., J. Kroll, A. Chan, P. Chhabra, R. Flagan, and J. Seinfeld. 2007. on the Topic of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) Associated with Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from M-Xylene, Toluene, Aircraft, Airports, and Aviation, Federal Aviation Administration. and Benzene. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7: 39093922. Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, I. 2006. Boston-Logan International Airport-- Parrish, D. 2006. Critical Evaluation of U.S. On-Road Vehicle Emission 2005 Environmental Data Report (EDR). Massachusetts Port Au- Inventories. Atmospheric Environment. 40: 22882300. thority, Economic Planning & Development, Boston. December. Piazza, B. 1999. Santa Monica Municipal Airport: A Report on the Gen- Wade, M. D. 2002. Aircraft/Auxiliary Power Units/Aerospace Ground eration and Downwind Extent of Emissions Generated from Aircraft Support Equipment Emission Factors, United States Air Force, and Ground Support Operations. Prepared for Santa Monica Air- Institute for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health Risk port Working Group, Santa Monica, CA. Analysis (IERA), Risk Analysis Directorate, Environmental Analy- Pison, I. and L. Menut. 2004. Quantification of the Impact of Aircraft sis Division: 68. Traffic Emissions on Tropospheric Ozone over Paris Area. Atmo- Warneke, C., S. McKeen, J. de Gouw, P. Goldan, W. Kuster, J. Hol- spheric Environment 38(7): 971983. loway, E. Williams, et al. 2007. Determination of Urban Volatile Rindlisbacher, T. 2007. Aircraft Piston Engine Emissions Summary Organic Compound Emission Ratios and Comparison with an Report, Swiss Confederation. Federal Department of the Environ- Emissions Database. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres ment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC), Federal 112 (D10S47): doi:10.1029/2006JD007930. Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA), Aviation Policy and Strategy, Wey, C. C., B. E. Anderson, C. Wey, R. C. Miake-Lye, P. Whitefield, and Environmental Affairs, Bern, Switzerland. R. Howard. 2007. Overview on the Aircraft Particle Emissions Ex- Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. 2007. TF periment (APEX). Journal of Propulsion and Power 23(5): 898905. Green Airport Air Monitoring Study. EPA Air Toxics Data Analysis Yelvington, P. E., S. C. Herndon, J. Wormhoudt, J. T. Jayne, R. C. Workshop, Providence. October 3. Miake-Lye, W. B. Knighton, and C. Wey. 2007. Chemical Specia- Robinson, A., N. Donahue, M. Shrivastava, E. Weitkamp, A. Sage, tion of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Commercial Aircraft En- A. Grieshop, T. Lane, J. Pierce, and S. Pandis. 2007. Rethinking gine. Journal of Propulsion and Power 23(5):9128 Organic Aerosol: Semivolatile Emissions and Photochemical Zhang, Y., D. H. Stedman, G. A. Bishop, P. L. Guenther, and S. P. Aging. Science 315: 12591262. Beaton. 1995. Worldwide On-Road Vehicle Exhaust Emissions San Diego International Airport. 2006. 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