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OCR for page 55
55 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS APEX Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment ORD Chicago O'Hare International Airport APU auxiliary power unit PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry PARTNER Partnership for AiR Transportation Noise & Emissions BMC benchmark concentration Reduction BMCL lower 95% confidence limit on the benchmark concentration Pb lead BOS Boston Logan International Airport PDX Portland International Airport CARB California Air Research Board PHL Philadelphia International Airport CIIT Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology pptv parts per trillion by volume CO carbon monoxide ppbv parts per billion by volume CO2 carbon dioxide ppmv parts per million by volume EDMS Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System ppmw parts per million by weight EI emissions index RBC risk-based concentration EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency REL recommended exposure limit EtO ethylene oxide RfC reference concentration FAA Federal Aviation Administration RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment FLL Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport of the Netherlands GAV ground access vehicles SIP State Implementation Plan GSE ground support equipment SO2 sulfur dioxide HAP hazardous air pollutant, also known as "air toxics." In the TC tolerable concentration context of this report, particulate matter is excluded TERA Toxicology Excellence in Risk Assessment HBEL health based exposure level THC total hydrocarbon HC hydrocarbon tons Emission inventories in the U.S. traditionally express mass HCHO formaldehyde in tons, which is an ambiguous term since there are three HEC human equivalent concentration types of tons: metric tons (2,200 lbs), imperial tons (2,240 HVAC heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning lbs), and short tons (2,000 lbs). In this document the term ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ILEAV Inherently Low Emission Airport Vehicle Pilot Program "ton" refers to short tons. IRIS Integrated Risk Information System TPHCWG Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group ISCST3 Industrial Source Complex Short Term Model TSP total suspended particulate IUR inhalation unit risk UHC unburned hydrocarbon. This term is slightly misleading LOAEL lowest observed adverse effect level since some HC emissions from aircraft are better de- LTO landing take-off scribed as "partially" burned (e.g., aldehydes) MDW Chicago Midway Airport VALE Voluntary Airport Low Emission program mg/m3 milligrams per cubic meter VOC volatile organic compound. According to the EPA, (s) MRL minimum risk levels "Volatile organic compounds (VOC) means any com- NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards pound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon NEPA National Environmental Protection Act dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and NMHC nonmethane hydrocarbons ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric NO2 nitrogen dioxide photochemical reactions. This includes any such organic NOAEL no observed adverse effect level compound other than the following, which have been O3 ozone determined to have negligible photochemical reactivity: OAK Oakland International Airport Methane, ethane, methylene chloride, CFCs, HFCs, OEHHAT Office of Environmental Human Health Assessment HCFCs". From www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/ozone/ozonetech/ Toxicity def_voc.htm.