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5 SECTION I Introduction In 1998, AASHTO approved its Strategic Highway Safety Similar procedures for roadway-user and vehicle emphasis Plan, with a goal of reducing annual highway fatalities by 5,000 areas (e.g., older drivers, large trucks) were not developed at to 7,000. The plan includes strategies in 22 key emphasis areas that time. It was subsequently decided that an additional that affect highway safety. NCHRP Project 17-18(3) is devel- guide would be produced to assist state and local users in oping a series of guides to assist state and local agencies in locating and analyzing pertinent safety data in their planning reducing injuries and fatalities. Each guide is focused on one of effort for any of the 22 emphasis areas. The purpose of the the key emphasis areas (e.g., head-on collisions, unsignalized "Data and Analysis Guide" is to provide guidance on the intersection collisions, collisions involving unlicensed drivers, sources of safety data needed and on procedures for both collisions involving pedestrians). Each emphasis-area guide choosing the best strategies/countermeasures within a given includes a brief introduction, a general description of the prob- emphasis area and targeting those treatment strategies to lem, the strategies/countermeasures to address the problem, either roadway locations or road-user subgroups. and a model implementation process. The guides are published There are many steps and procedures necessary to success- as individual volumes within NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for fully plan and implement safety strategies within a given Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan emphasis area. Many of these steps are related to developing (120), and copies can be obtained from the Transportation the critical "safety team" of administrators, planners, pro- Research Board and downloaded from http://safety.trans gram managers and analysts. These procedures are covered in portation.org/guides.aspx. detail in both the model implementation plans within each In addition to the individual emphasis area guides, NCHRP of the NCHRP Report 500 volumes, and within NCHRP Report 501: Integrated Management Process to Reduce Highway Report 501 (18). While those procedures covered the entire Injuries and Fatalities Statewide provides an overall framework safety-planning process, this "Data and Analysis Guide" is for coordinating a safety program. The integrated management focused on the procedures and steps necessary in the data- process comprises the necessary steps for advancing from crash related efforts involved in emphasis-area planning. The data to integrated action plans. The process includes method- procedures were developed to be applicable in jurisdictions ologies to aid the practitioner in problem identification, that have extensive safety data files (e.g., crash, roadway resource optimization, and performance measurements. inventory, intersection inventory, traffic) and limited safety A series of meetings with "lead states" was held in 2004 data (i.e., crash data only), and both for situations in which 2005 to test the first sets of NCHRP Report 500 volumes the crash-related effectiveness of a specific countermeasure produced. The lead states used the guidance documents in has been defined and situations where countermeasure the development of emphasis-area plans. Technical assistance effectiveness is unknown at this time. The guide addresses was provided to those states during that process under the emphasis-area safety planning for situations in which rele- NCHRP 17-18(3) project. Issues raised by those states during vant crash data are available to guide the planning process. that process led to the development of additional supplemen- Safety planning for situations in which no crash data are tal resources, including example plans for lane-departure and available is outside the scope of this guide. However, safety intersection crash issues. These plans contained detailed ex- managers should be aware that there are important emphasis ample data analysis procedures that the states could use in areas, including pedestrian and bicycle safety, for which safety choosing strategies/countermeasures within an emphasis plans often need to be developed without crash data or with area and in targeting those treatments to roadway locations. very limited crash data. The guide does suggest data types that