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89 how to "weight" the different factors. While problem size ment types and treatments will meet the established goal. (total crash cost) and assumed treatment effectiveness are Therefore, the best that can be done is to proceed in select- key factors, there may be technical, policy, and cost con- ing treatment types and treatments until the available siderations that will remove certain treatments from con- budget for safety improvement has been fully committed. sideration even if they are felt to be effective. The user will The total benefit of the selected program will not be fore- have to choose the final treatments based on best judg- castable, but the success of the program can be determined ment. The procedure outlined above will at least ensure if a sound evaluation is conducted after its implementation. that the major factors in the decision are clearly defined. Step 9: Target the chosen treatments to areas with high Closure crash concentrations. Since this procedure concerns treatment strategies Choosing treatments and targeting those treatments to the without known effectiveness, it will not be possible to tar- unsafe driving populations covered in this section is difficult. get the treatments based on any type of economic analysis The programs are complex, there is limited crash-based such as those in Procedures 1, 2A and 2B. Instead, the information on treatment effectiveness for the strategies cov- treatment will be targeted to EMS agencies and commu- ered in the two guides, and there is limited information on nities located in geographical areas with the highest total program costs. However, choices have to be made given that crash cost or frequency, coupled with user judgment con- available budgets will always be limited to some degree. cerning other characteristics of the potential target groups, Because programs aimed at improving EMS responsiveness and technical and political issues. are not traditional engineering treatments, the application of Step 10: Repeat the process for each problem/deficiency. these types of programs is usually more flexible in nature and Step 11: Add either new treatments or new target areas costs for implementation can be more easily adapted to a until the available funding is used. budget of any size. It is hoped that the procedures presented Without effectiveness measures for the treatments, it is in this section at least provide some insight into how budget- not possible to verify whether or not a specific set of treat- ary choices can be made.