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VOLUME 21 NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 500 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Volume 21: Safety Data and Analysis in Developing Emphasis Area Plans

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of May 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 500 Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Volume 21: Safety Data and Analysis in Developing Emphasis Area Plans Forrest M. Council VANASSE HANGEN BRUSTLIN, INC. Raleigh, NC Douglas W. Harwood Ingrid B. Potts Darren J. Torbic Jerry L. Graham Jessica M. Hutton MIDWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Kansas City, MO Barbara Hilger Delucia DATA NEXUS, INC. College Station, TX Raymond C. Peck R.C. PECK AND ASSOCIATES Oakland, CA Timothy R. Neuman CH2M HILL Chicago, IL Subject Areas Safety and Human Performance Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 500, VOLUME 21 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 17-18(3) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11743-2 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008904443 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 500, VOLUME 21 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Charles W. Niessner, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 17-18(3) PANEL Field of Traffic--Area of Safety Thomas E. Bryer, Science Applications International Corporation, Camp Hill, PA (Chair) Jasvinderjit "Jesse" Bhullar, California DOT Linda A. Cosgrove, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Troy Costales, Oregon DOT Leanna Depue, Missouri DOT L. Keith Golden, Georgia DOT Barbara Harsha, Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington, DC Bruce Ibarguen, Maine DOT Marlene Markison, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Margaret "Meg" Moore, Texas DOT Kathryn R. Swanson, Minnesota Department of Public Safety, St. Paul, MN Rudy Umbs, FHWA Thomas M. Welch, Iowa DOT Ray Krammes, FHWA Liaison Ken Kobetsky, AASHTO Liaison Richard Pain, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Charles W. Niessner Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) has adopted a national highway safety goal of halving fatalities over the next 2 decades; or reduc- ing fatalities by 1000 per year. This goal can be achieved through the widespread applica- tion of low-cost, proven countermeasures that reduce the number of crashes on the nation's highways. This twenty-first volume of NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan provides guidance on data sources and analysis techniques that can be employed to assist agencies in allocating safety funds. The report will be of particular interest to safety practitioners with responsibility for implementing pro- grams to reduce injuries and fatalities on the highway system. In 1998, AASHTO approved its Strategic Highway Safety Plan, which was developed by the AASHTO Standing Committee for Highway Traffic Safety with the assistance of the Federal Highway Administration, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and the Trans- portation Research Board Committee on Transportation Safety Management. The plan includes strategies in 22 key emphasis areas that affect highway safety. Each of the 22 empha- sis areas includes strategies and an outline of what is needed to implement each strategy. NCHRP Project 17-18(3) is developing a series of guides to assist state and local agencies in reducing injuries and fatalities in targeted areas. The guides correspond to the emphasis areas outlined in the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Each guide includes a brief introduction, a general description of the problem, the strategies/countermeasures to address the problem, and a model implementation process. This is the twenty-first volume of NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single concise volumes, each pertaining to specific types of highway crashes (e.g., run- off-the-road, head-on) or contributing factors (e.g., aggressive driving). An expanded ver- sion of each volume with additional reference material and links to other information sources is available on the AASHTO Web site at http://safety.transportation.org. Future volumes of the report will be published and linked to the Web site as they are completed. While each volume includes countermeasures for dealing with particular crash emphasis areas, NCHRP Report 501: Integrated Management Process to Reduce Highway Injuries and Fatalities Statewide provides an overall framework for coordinating a safety program. The integrated management process comprises the necessary steps for advancing from crash data to integrated action plans. The process includes methodologies to aid the practitioner in problem identification, resource optimization, and performance measurements. Together, the management process and the guides provide a comprehensive set of tools for managing a coordinated highway safety program.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Section I Introduction 6 Introduction to Proposed Procedures 8 Section II Data Types Used in Preparing the Safety Plan 8 Crash Data and Related Files 11 Roadway Inventory Data 12 Traffic Volume Data 12 Driver History Files 13 Vehicle Registration Files 13 Statewide Injury Surveillance System Files 13 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) 14 Population Census Files 14 Citation Tracking and DUI Tracking Files 14 Local Data Files 15 Other Safety Files 15 Time Dimension of Data 15 Closure 16 Section III Details of the Three-Stage Process 16 Stage 1--Define/Choose One or More Issues/Emphasis Areas 17 Stage 2--Set a Crash, Injury or Death Reduction Goal for an Emphasis Area 17 Stage 3--Define Treatment Strategies and Target Populations 27 Other Safety Analysis Tools 27 Summary 28 Section IV Roadway Segment Programs 28 Possible Program Types--Spot versus System Programs 29 Procedure 1--Choosing Roadway-Based Treatments and Target Populations When Treatment Effectiveness Is Known, and Both Crash and Non-Crash Data Are Available 34 Procedure 2A--Choosing Roadway-Based Treatments and Target Populations When Treatment Effectiveness Is Known and Mileposted Crash Data Are Available, but Detailed Inventory Data Are Not Available 36 Procedure 2B--Choosing Roadway-Based Treatments and Target Populations When Treatment Effectiveness Is Known and Neither Mileposted Crash Data nor Detailed Inventory Data Are Available 38 Procedure 3--Choosing Roadway Treatments and Target Locations When Treatment Effectiveness in Terms of Crash/Injury Reduction Is Not Known 40 Procedure 4--Choosing Treatments and Target Populations in Emphasis Areas for which Some Candidate Treatments Have Known Effectiveness Estimates and Other Treatments Do Not

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42 Section V Roadway Junctions 42 Possible Program Types--Spot versus System Programs 43 Procedure 1--Choosing Intersection Treatments and Target Populations When Treatment Effectiveness Is Known, and Both Crash and Non-Crash Data Are Available 47 Procedure 2A--Choosing Intersection Treatments and Target Populations When Treatment Effectiveness Is Known and Mileposted Crash Data Are Available, but Detailed Inventory Data Are Not Available 49 Procedure 2B--Choosing Intersection Treatments and Target Populations When Treatment Effectiveness Is Known and Neither Mileposted Crash Data nor Detailed Inventory Data Are Available 50 Procedure 3--Choosing Intersection Treatments and Target Locations When Treatment Effectiveness in Terms of Crash/Injury Reduction Is Not Known 53 Procedure 4--Choosing Treatments and Target Populations in Emphasis Areas for which Some Candidate Treatments Have Known Effectiveness Estimates and Other Treatments Do Not 54 Section VI Special Road User Populations 54 Procedure 3--Choosing Roadway User Treatments and Target Subgroups When Treatment Effectiveness in Terms of Crash/Injury Reduction Is Not Known 58 Closure--Good Data Produce Better Results 59 Section VII Illegal Driver Actions 59 General Strategic Considerations 60 Procedure 3--Choosing Treatments and Target Subgroups Related To Illegal Driving Actions When Treatment Effectiveness in Terms of Crash/Injury Reduction Is Unknown 64 Alternative Economic Analysis Procedure--Choosing Treatments and Target Subgroups for Alcohol-Related Crash Strategies When Treatment Effective- ness in Terms of Alcohol-Related Crash/Injury Reduction Can Be Estimated 66 Alternative Procedure--Choosing Treatments and Target Subgroups for Alcohol-Related Crash Strategies Based On Existing DWI Program Needs 67 Closure 68 Section VIII Unsafe Driver Actions 68 General Strategic Considerations 69 Procedure 3--Choosing Treatments and Target Subgroups Related To Unsafe Driving Actions When Treatment Effectiveness in Terms of Crash/Injury Reduction Is Unknown 73 Closure 74 Section IX Special Vehicles 74 Procedure 3--Choosing Treatments and Target Subgroups for Crashes Involving Special Vehicle Types When Treatment Effectiveness in Terms of Crash/Injury Reduction Is Not Known 78 Closure--Good Data Produce Better Results 79 Section X Reducing Crashes in Work Zones 80 Level 1 Analysis 82 Level 2 Analysis 84 Level 3 Analysis 84 Level 4 Analysis

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86 Section XI Reducing Death and Injury Consequences Through Improved Rural EMS Services 86 Data Needs 86 Procedure 89 Closure 90 Section XII Data Improvements and What They Can Do for You 90 Organizational Issues 91 Data Improvement Strategies 93 Closure--Good Data Produce Better Results 94 Key References

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This volume of NCHRP Report 500 was developed under NCHRP Project 17-18(3), the product of which is a series of implementation guides addressing the emphasis areas of AASHTO's Strategic Highway Safety Plan. The project was managed by CH2M HILL, and the co-principal investigators were Ron Pfefer of Maron Engineering and Kevin Slack of CH2M HILL. Timothy Neuman of CH2M HILL served as the overall project director for the team. Kelly Hardy, also of CH2M HILL, served as a technical specialist on the development of the guides. The project team was organized around the specialized technical content contained in each guide, and the overall team included nationally recognized experts from many organizations. The following team of experts, selected for their knowledge of this emphasis area, served as lead authors for this guide: Forrest M. Council Barbara Hilger Delucia Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. Data Nexus, Inc. Douglas W. Harwood, Ingrid B. Potts, Raymond C. Peck Darren J. Torbic, Jerry L. Graham R.C. Peck and Associates and Jessica M. Hutton Timothy R. Neuman Midwest Research Institute CH2M HILL Development of the volumes of NCHRP Report 500 used the resources and expertise of many professionals from around the country and overseas. Through research, workshops, and actual demonstration of the guides by agencies, the resulting documents represent best practices in each emphasis area. The project team is grateful to the following list of people and their agencies for supporting the project by providing material, participating in workshops and meetings, and providing input and comments during the development of the young driver guide: Federal Highway Maryland Motor National Highway Traffic Administration Vehicle Administration Safety Administration Mike Griffith Jack Joyce Don McNamara Robert Pollack Missouri DOT Ohio Department of Florida DOT Mike Curtit Public Safety Patrick Brady, P.E. Tim Erskine National Association of Georgia DOT State EMS Directors Ohio DOT Norm Cressman Kevin McGinnis Dave Holstein Iowa DOT, Office of Traffic and Safety Michael Pawlovich, PhD