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36 Strategy summary. Common traffic calming gateway strategies are as follows: Purpose Strategy Reduce likelihood of Apply speed reduction signs, run-off-road crash pavement markings, and other gateway treatments (T) Reduce severity of run- Construct gateway raised median off-road crash treatments (T) Construct roundabouts with traversable island centers in initial islands (T) Literature Review Conclusion This review has examined the knowledge and practice of roadside safety as they relate to the design of roadsides in urban areas. A brief review of roadside crash statistics demon- strates that roads in the urban environment, although gen- erally lower speed facilities than their rural counterparts, nevertheless suffer from run-off-road collisions with roadside hazards. The operational offset concept for curbed urban roadways should, therefore, not be mistaken as a safety stan- dard, and urban setback policies should be considered for future adoption. Although they are not the focus of this research, the strate- gies used in urban environments to help prevent errant vehicles from leaving the travelway and encountering a fixed roadside object are briefly reviewed in this report. Finally, this review has summarized common urban road- side objects and known safety issues associated with these roadside objects. A collection of safety strategies (experi- mental, tried, and proven) for each set of roadside hazards is included. In general, this review makes it clear that the safety impli- cations of many roadside features (such as curbs, signs, and utility poles) are well understood; however, there are signifi- Photos courtesy of Reid Ewing (116 ) cant gaps in understanding how many urban roadside features Figure 17. Example of gateway transition (such as landscape buffers, trees, and lighting) should be in Saratoga Springs, NY. addressed for safe urban roadside development.