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5 CHAPTER 2 Research Approach The research effort was carried out in three distinct phases: ment phase was the initial version of CANDE-2007 and draft (1) planning, (2) development, and (3) testing and docu- documentation. mentation. The planning phase included a literature review, The final phase consisted of beta testing and preparing final the development of GUI mockups and use cases for the input documentation. Beta testing was first undertaken by the and output screens, theoretical developments for all new NCHRP oversight panel followed by a group of 35 beta-tester capabilities such as large deformation theory, and interpreta- volunteers from the culvert community. Beta testing pro- tion of the AASHTO LRFD specifications to establish mech- duced another round of improvements to the CANDE-2007 anistically meaningful design criteria. An interim report software and documentation. documented the planning phase and a proposed work plan The final products are the CANDE-2007 software, both in was prepared and sent to the NCHRP oversight panel for re- executable and source form, and three stand-alone docu- view. After providing suggestions and guidance, the oversight ments in addition to this report. Short descriptions of the panel approved the work plan. documents are provided below. Each document is available Next, the development phase was undertaken to execute directly from the CANDE interface in PDF format with the the approved work plan. CANDE-2007 was developed using User Manual also available in context-sensitive compiled Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 along with Intel FORTRAN 9.1 HTML help format. An abbreviated table of contents for each compiler. CANDE has been tested and may be installed on a document is provided in the Appendix of this report. personal computer with the following: CANDE-2007 User Manual and Guideline--This docu- ment provides a detailed description of all things related to Microsoft Windows XP, service pack 2 or later. the CANDE-2007 interface (both input and output). Microsoft Windows.NET Framework 2.0. CANDE-2007 Solution Methods and Formulations--This document contains detailed information related to the solution The language used for the development of the GUI was the methodology of the CANDE analysis engine. This document is Microsoft C# programming language. The CANDE analysis intended for users who seek detailed information on how engine is written as a separate dynamic link library (DLL) CANDE performs internal calculations. using the Intel FORTRAN 9.1 compiler with a C# shell. CANDE-2007 Tutorial of Applications--This document Alpha testing by the research team resulted in improved provides a variety of examples that detail the various features concepts for the GUI as well as corrections to theoretical of CANDE-2007 and includes sections on providing input developments and coding. The final product of the develop- through the CANDE interface and interpreting output results.