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7 Figure 1. Major options to define the top-level input data for CANDE-2007. A suite of soil models is available including the popular hy- such as mesh geometry and beam-element graph information, perbolic forms of Duncan and Duncan/Selig as well as the quickly navigate the large CANDE output files through the standard linear forms for isotropic elastic, orthotropic elastic, use of an interactive browser, and access context-sensitive help and overburden dependent. Predefined model parameters are for the whole system. A sample of the interface is shown in provided in the program for simulating crushed rock, sands, Figure 2. silts, and clays under a range of compaction conditions. Another system choice is the interface condition between the soil and culvert or between fill soil and in situ soil. The user Input Options may select bonded or a friction interface that permits fric- The key concept behind the GUI input option is that it tional sliding and separation during the loading schedule. Still, ultimately creates a CANDE-2007 input document file that another system choice is the option to include large contains the same formatted data stream as that of traditional deformation and buckling analysis. This is particularly useful batch-mode input. The traditional batch-mode method of for investigating large, flexible culverts under heavy loading. input requires the user to hand type the CANDE input doc- ument via an ASCII text editor in accordance with the writ- ten input instructions in the user manual. In contrast, the Graphical User Interface GUI is much easier to use because each input command is CANDE-2007 provides a GUI that greatly eases the task of represented by an input menu that is "tailor-made" to con- creating CANDE input documents and also allows the viewing form to the user's previous input choices. Thus, the user does of the CANDE output results graphically. A companion docu- not need to navigate through the entire user manual. Instead, ment, CANDE-2007 User Manual and Guideline, describes in the user just follows the screen input instructions and ac- detail the input and output capabilities of the GUI that was de- cesses the context-sensitive help provided by the GUI. The veloped in the course of this research effort. The GUI provides GUI has options to create new CANDE input documents, a multiple document interface (MDI) environment where the edit and rerun existing input documents, and import data user can develop and revise input, review graphic information files from external sources.

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8 Figure 2. CANDE-2007 multiple document interface. As an illustration, Figure 3 shows the start-up screen for Output Options creating a new CANDE input document using the CANDE Input Wizard. Note that several of the top-level choices pre- Viewing the CANDE output is controlled by the user via a viously discussed are shown on this screen with radio-button drop-down menu on the GUI toolbar. The drop-down menu selections. As a consequence of the user's selections made offers five viewing choices consisting of three text files and on this screen, the screens that follow only pertain to the two interactive graphic tools, which are also accessible from information that is needed for this problem, thereby elimi- individual icons on the tool bar. Short descriptions of the five nating up to 80% of the non-relevant input directions in the choices are provided below. detailed user manual. Since the CANDE-2007 User Manual and Guideline contains more than 180 pages of input CANDE Output Report. This is the most comprehensive instructions, the utility of the GUI input method is readily output file and contains text and tables for all the input apparent. selections as well as the complete set of structural response Once the key input parameters are provided, a CANDE data for each load step. The Output Report has an interac- input document is generated and the user is provided an tive table of contents that allows the user to quickly locate input menu browser to navigate and modify the input as nec- output data of interest. Most notably the evaluation of the essary. The key features of the input menu browser are pipe type is given in the last subsection. The output files detailed in Figure 4. contain a myriad of information and can be somewhat

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9 Figure 3. Start-up screen from CANDE Input Wizard. Figure 4. CANDE input menu overview.