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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 619 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Modernize and Upgrade CANDE for Analysis and LRFD Design of Buried Structures

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of May 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 619 Modernize and Upgrade CANDE for Analysis and LRFD Design of Buried Structures Mark Mlynarski MICHAEL BAKER JR., INC. Moon Township, PA Michael G. Katona CONSULTANT Gig Harbor, WA Timothy J. McGrath SIMPSON, GUMPERTZ & HEGER, INC. Waltham, MA Subject Areas Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 619 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 15-28 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11744-9 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008932227 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 619 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs David B. Beal, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 15-28 PANEL Field of Design--Area of General Design Arthur P. Yannotti, New York State DOT, Albany, NY (Chair) Josiah Beakley, American Concrete Pipe Association, Irving, TX Steven L. Folkman, Utah State University, Logan, UT Dallas J. Forester, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Denis D. Stuhff, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City, UT Kevin White, E. L. Robinson Engineering Company, Dublin, OH Erik Wolhowe, Minnesota DOT, Oakdale, MN Jerry A. DiMaggio, FHWA Liaison Jose L. Aldayuz, AASHTO Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 15-28 by Michael Baker Jr., Inc.; Michael G. Katona; and Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. Michael Baker Jr., Inc. was the contractor for this study. The work undertaken by Michael Katona and Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. was under a subcontract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc. Mark Mlynarski, Project Manager, Michael Baker Jr., Inc., and Michael G. Katona, Ph.D, were the Co- Principal Investigators. The other authors of this report were Timothy J. McGrath, Ph.D., Senior Princi- pal, and Bryan P. Strohman, Engineer of Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. The work was performed under the general supervision of Mr. Mlynarski and Dr. Katona. The soft- ware development work at Michael Baker Jr., Inc. was performed under the supervision of Mr. Mlynarski with the assistance of Joseph Ihnat, Software Systems Developer III, and Sabine Boukamp, Civil Associ- ate II. Dr. Katona was responsible for the revisions and enhancements to the CANDE analysis engine. The work performed at Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. was under the supervision of Dr. McGrath with the assistance of Mr. Strohman.

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FOREWORD By David B. Beal Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report documents research performed to develop, modernize, and upgrade CANDE (Culvert ANalysis and DEsign). The new version is called CANDE-2007. The report details the research performed to update the program. CANDE installation files are included on a CD-ROM with this report. The installed program includes integrated help files and 14 tutorial examples. The report and software will be of immediate interest to culvert designers. First introduced in 1976 under the sponsorship of FHWA, CANDE is a design and analy- sis tool for all types and sizes of buried structures. CANDE is widely used by state DOTs, industries, consulting firms, and universities in the United States, Canada, Europe, Africa, and Australia. CANDE provides an elastic solution (Level 1), automated finite element mesh generation for common configurations (Level 2), and a user-defined finite element mesh (Level 3). The earlier version, CANDE-89, operates in a batch-mode environment. Significant changes have occurred in computer technology since the issuance of CANDE-89, such as Windows-based programming environments. Moreover, recent NCHRP studies have introduced new design criteria and analysis techniques, which have been incorporated into AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The objective of NCHRP Project 15-28 was to modernize and upgrade CANDE-89. The products of this research are CANDE-2007, a user-friendly Windows-based, buried struc- ture analysis and load and resistance factor design program; a comprehensive user's man- ual and system manual; and a tutorial. Enhancements over earlier versions include an updated finite element analysis engine and graphical tools for interpreting the CANDE out- put. The CANDE analysis solver was enhanced to include an automated bandwidth mini- mizer, an algorithm for predicting large deformations, and LRFD design methodology. In addition to the solver enhancements, an integrated environment was developed to allow input through a menu-driven Windows interface, a viewer to plot the finite element mesh geometry and results, an output report generator, a graph viewer to review and plot culvert element responses, and a context-sensitive help system. This research was performed by Michael Baker Jr., Inc. assisted by Michael G. Katona and Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger Inc. The report fully documents the software development effort leading to CANDE-2007.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Background 3 CANDE Upgrade--AASHTO 5 Chapter 2 Research Approach 6 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 6 CANDE-2007 Overview 7 Graphical User Interface 10 New Analysis Capabilities 14 Testing and Evaluation 14 Applications--Tutorials 14 List of Tutorial Problems 14 Illustration of Tutorial 21 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 21 Assessment 21 Future Research 21 Implementation 22 References 23 Appendix Tables of Contents to Companion Documents 24 CANDE-2007 User Manual and Guideline-- Abbreviated Table of Contents 25 CANDE-2007 Solution Methods and Formulations-- Abbreviated Table of Contents 26 CANDE-2007 Tutorial of Applications-- Abbreviated Table of Contents