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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 616 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Multimodal Level of Service Analysis for Urban Streets

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of May 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 616 Multimodal Level of Service Analysis for Urban Streets Richard Dowling and David Reinke DOWLING ASSOCIATES, INC. Oakland, CA Aimee Flannery GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY Fairfax, VA Paul Ryus and Mark Vandehey KITTELSON & ASSOCIATES, INC. Portland, OR Theo Petritsch and Bruce Landis SPRINKLE CONSULTING, INC. Lutz, FL Nagui Rouphail INSTITUTE FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND EDUCATION (ITRE) Raleigh, NC James Bonneson TEXAS A & M RESEARCH PROGRAM College Station, TX Subject Areas Planning and Administration Highway and Facility Design Highway Operations, Capacity, and Traffic Control Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 616 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 3-70 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11742-5 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008905870 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 616 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne Schwager, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 3-70 PANEL Field of Traffic--Area of Operations and Control Douglas S. McLeod, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL (Chair) Ghassan Abu-Lebdeh, American UniversitySharjah, Sharjah, UAE F. Thomas Creasey, American Consulting Engineers, PLC, Lexington, KY Thomas Huber, Wisconsin DOT, Madison, WI James M. Okazaki, Los Angeles DOT, Los Angeles, CA Elena Prassas, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, NY Juan Robles, Colorado DOT, Denver, CO Kevin St. Jacques, Wilbur Smith Associates, Dallas, TX Stan Teply, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB John Halkias, FHWA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Dianne Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Report 616: Multimodal Level of Service Analysis for Urban Streets will be of inter- est to public agencies responsible for the planning, design, and operation of urban streets. This report provides a method for assessing how well an urban street serves the needs of all of its users: auto drivers, transit passengers, bicycle riders, and pedestrians. NCHRP Project 3-70 developed and calibrated a method for evaluating the multimodal level of service (MMLOS) provided by different urban street designs and operations. This MMLOS method is designed for evaluating "complete streets," context-sensitive design alternatives, and smart growth from the perspective of all users of the street. The analyst can use the MMLOS method to evaluate the tradeoffs of various street designs in terms of their effects on the auto driver's, transit passenger's, bicyclist's, and pedestrian's perceptions of the quality of service provided by the street. The MMLOS method is described in the user's guide appendix to this final report (pub- lished as NCHRP Web-Only Document 128). It can be implemented in a simple spreadsheet. The MMLOS method estimates the auto, bus, bicycle, and pedestrian level of service on an urban street using a combination of readily available data and data normally gathered by an agency to assess auto and transit level of service. The data requirements of the MMLOS method include geometric cross-section, signal timing, the posted speed limit, bus head- ways, traffic volumes, transit patronage, and pedestrian volumes. The NCHRP Project 3-70 MMLOS method also enables agencies to balance the level of service needs of auto drivers, transit riders, bicycle riders, and pedestrians in their street designs by providing agencies with a tool for testing different allocations of scarce street right-of-way to the different modes using the street.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Research Objective and Scope 3 1.2 The Research Plan 4 1.3 This Report 5 Chapter 2 State of the Practice 5 2.1 State of the Practice Survey 5 Highway Capacity Manual 6 Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual 9 Florida Quality/Level of Service Handbook 11 2.2 Evaluation Against NCHRP 3-70 Framework Objectives 11 Highway Capacity Manual 13 Transit TCQSM Critique 14 Florida DOT Q/LOS Handbook 15 2.3 Conclusions 15 Current Agency Practices 15 The Major Level of Service Manuals 16 Implications for Research Project 17 Chapter 3 Literature Review 17 3.1 Auto Driver Perception of LOS 17 Urban Street LOS 18 Intersection LOS Research 21 Use of Fuzzy Logic for LOS Modeling 21 Rural Road Research 22 3.2 Transit Passenger Perception of LOS 22 A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction 23 A Guidebook for Developing Transit Performance Measurement System 23 Application of Transit QOS Measures in Florida 23 3.3 Bicyclist Perceptions of LOS 24 An Arterial LOS Model Based on Field Surveys and Video Lab 24 Segment LOS Models Based on Field Surveys or Video Lab 26 Measuring LOS Through Route Choice 26 Models of Rural Road Bicycle LOS 27 3.4 Pedestrian Perception of LOS 27 Intersection Crossing LOS Studies 28 Sidewalk and Path LOS Studies 29 Use of Visual Simulation 29 Midblock Crossing LOS Studies 30 3.5 Multimodal LOS Research

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32 Chapter 4 Data Collection 32 4.1 Selection of QOS Survey Method 35 4.2 Phase I Data Collection (Pilot Studies) 35 4.3 Development of Video Clips 35 Auto Video Clips 36 Bicycle Video Clips 38 Pedestrian Video Clips 42 Development of Master DVDs 46 4.4 Video Lab Protocol 46 Selection of Video Lab Cities 47 IRB Review 47 Recruitment 50 Validity of Video Lab Respondent Sample 50 Survey Instrument 50 Pilot Tests 50 Video Lab Sessions 51 4.5 Effects of Demographics on LOS 52 Effects of Demographics on Auto LOS Ratings 53 Effects of Demographics on Bicycle LOS Ratings 53 Effects of Demographics on Pedestrian LOS Ratings 54 4.6 Transit On-Board Surveys 54 Agency Coordination 54 Field Data Collection 55 Survey Form Development 57 Survey Distribution 58 Route Characteristics 60 4.7 Representation of Survey Results by a Single LOS Grade 62 Chapter 5 Auto LOS Model 62 5.1 Model Development 62 Identification of Key Variables 62 Linear Regression Tests 64 Limitations of Linear Regression Modeling 65 Cumulative Logistic Regression 65 Best Candidate Auto LOS Models 65 Performance of Candidates 69 5.2 Recommended Auto LOS Model 71 5.3 Performance of Auto LOS Models 72 Chapter 6 Transit LOS Model 72 6.1 Model Development 72 Selection of Explanatory Variables for LOS 74 Proposed General Model Form for Transit LOS 74 Elasticity Concept 77 Reliability 78 Crowding 78 6.2 Recommended Transit LOS Model 79 Estimation of the Pedestrian LOS 79 Estimation of the Transit Wait Ride Score 81 6.3 Performance of Transit LOS Model

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82 Chapter 7 Bicycle LOS Model 82 7.1 Development 82 7.2 Recommended Bicycle LOS Model 83 Bicycle Segment LOS 83 Bicycle Intersection LOS 84 7.3 Performance of Bicycle LOS Model on Video Clips 86 Chapter 8 Pedestrian LOS Model 86 8.1 Model Development 87 8.2 Recommended Pedestrian LOS Model 87 Overall Pedestrian LOS Model 87 Pedestrian Density LOS Model for Sidewalks, Walkways, Street Corners 87 Pedestrian Other LOS Model 88 Pedestrian Segment LOS 88 Pedestrian Intersection LOS 88 Pedestrian Midblock Crossing Factor 91 8.3 Performance Evaluation of Pedestrian LOS Model 92 Chapter 9 Integrated Multimodal LOS Framework 92 9.1 The Framework 92 9.2 The Integrated LOS Modeling System 92 Input Variable Interactions Among Modes 95 Interactions Among Modal LOS Results 96 Chapter 10 Accomplishment of Research Objectives 98 References 102 Appendix A Subject Data Collection Forms 105 Appendix B Study Protocol 110 Appendix C Example Recruitment Flyer/Poster

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 3-70 by Dowling Associates, Inc., Oakland, California. Dr. Aimee Flannery of George Mason University and Dr. Nagui Rouphail of the Institute for Trans- portation Research and Education (ITRE) developed the recommended auto level of service model. Dr. Flannery developed the auto video clips and conducted the auto, bicycle, and pedestrian video labo- ratories around the United States. Dr. Flannery developed the linear and non-linear regression models and conducted the initial statistical analysis for the auto LOS models. Dr. Kathryn Wochinger assisted in the design of the video laboratory survey instruments and protocol. Dr. Rouphail and Laureano Rangel led the statistical development of the ordered logistic auto LOS model. Mr. Paul Ryus of Kittelson Associates developed the transit LOS model and conducted the Phase 1 tran- sit data collection effort. Mr. David Reinke of Dowling Associates led the Phase 2 transit data collection effort and performed various statistical analyses in support of the auto and transit model developments. Mr. Chris Ferrell of Dowling Associates updated the literature review. Mr. Bruce Landis, Mr. Theo Petritsch, and Dr. Herman Huang of Sprinkle Consulting, Inc., developed the pedestrian and bicycle LOS models and performed the statistical analyses associated with that effort. They also shot the video clips for the bicycle and pedestrian portions of the video laboratories. Mr. Mark Vandehey of Kittelson Associates and Dr. James Bonneson of Texas A & M coordinated the subject research with the ongoing NCHRP 3-79 project and provided Highway Capacity Committee per- spectives on the research. The authors would like to thank the management of Tri-Met (Portland, OR), Broward County Tran- sit (Ft. Lauderdale, FL), Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (Washington, DC), AC Tran- sit (Oakland, CA) and Muni (San Francisco, CA) for their permission and support to conduct on-board transit surveys on selected routes.