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1 SUMMARY Multimodal Level of Service Analysis for Urban Streets This report presents the results of a 2-year investigation into how users of urban streets perceive the multimodal quality of service provided by the streets, NCHRP Project 3-70, Multimodal Level of Service for Urban Streets. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the key factors influencing trav- elers' perceptions of urban street level of service (LOS) from the perspective of auto drivers, bus riders, bicycle riders, and pedestrians. The results of this preliminary investigation were used to design a series of video laboratories (for auto, bicycle, and pedestrian modes) and field surveys (for the bus mode). Video clips were shot of typical urban street segments in the United States from the per- spective of auto drivers, bicycle riders, and pedestrians. Between 26 and 35 video clips were shot for each mode. These video clips were then shown to 145 people in four different urban areas of the United States. Survey participants were asked to rate the quality of service dis- played in each video clip on a scale from A to F, with A being defined as Best and F being defined as Worst. In the field, on-board surveys were conducted of 14 bus routes in four different metro- politan areas. A total of 2,678 bus passengers were surveyed about their perceptions of bus quality of service. Four separate LOS models (one for each mode) were then fitted to the video laboratory and field survey data. All four LOS models are sensitive to the street design (e.g., number of lanes, widths, and landscaping), traffic control devices (signal timing, speed limits), and traf- fic volumes. The models incorporate directly and indirectly the interactions of the various users of the street. For example, improved signal timing increases auto speeds and bus speeds which increases auto and bus LOS. However, the higher auto and bus speeds adversely af- fect the level of service perceived by bicyclists and pedestrians. The LOS models are ideal for evaluating the benefits of "complete streets" and "context- sensitive" design options because the models quantify the interactions of the modes sharing the same street right-of-way. The models enable the analyst to test the tradeoffs of various allocations of the urban street cross section among autos, buses, bicycles, and pedestrians. For example, the analyst can test the effects of reducing a four-lane street to three lanes and using the width saved to provide bicycle lanes and a landscaped strip between the sidewalk and the street. The method en- ables the analyst to compute the before and after levels of service for auto, bus, bicycle, and pedestrians. A User's Guide was written explaining the LOS models and their application. The User's Guide is written in the general format of a draft chapter for the Highway Capacity Manual to facilitate its potential incorporation into the next edition of the Highway Capacity Manual.
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2 A spreadsheet software engine was written and delivered to assist analysts in applying the LOS methods. The Final Report describes the development of the LOS models, while the User's Guide focuses on explaining the application of the models with detailed descriptions of each model and example applications.