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15 Exhibit 25. The Modal Operational Inter-Relationships in the FDOT Q/LOS Handbook. Mode Auto Transit Bicycle Pedestrian Auto Higher auto Higher auto flows Higher auto volumes Higher auto volumes reduce have NO effect on and/or higher speeds volumes and/or auto LOS transit frequency, reduce bicycle LOS higher speeds span of service, or reduce pedestrian walk access LOS Transit Higher transit Higher bus volumes Higher heavy vehicle Higher heavy volumes reduce mean higher volumes reduce vehicle volumes capacity and frequencies, which bicycle LOS reduce pedestrian increase delays at increases transit LOS LOS signalized intersections Bicycle Higher bicycle Higher bike flows Higher bicycle Higher bicycle volumes reduce have NO effect on volumes have NO volumes have NO capacity and transit frequency, effect on BLOS. effect on PLOS. increase delays at span of service, or Better design affects Better bike design signalized walk access barriers BLOS. may affect PLOS. intersections Pedestrian Higher pedestrian Higher pedestrian Higher pedestrian Higher pedestrian volumes reduce volumes have NO volumes have NO volumes have NO capacity and effect on transit LOS. effect on BLOS. effect on PLOS. increase delays at Better pedestrian Better pedestrian Better design intersections facilities improve design may affect affects PLOS. transit LOS. PLOS. Shaded boxes indicate weak or non-existent inter-relationships. No effect means that a change in modal volume has no effect on LOS as computed per FDOT. Modal Interactions: The FDOT Q/LOS Handbook incor- The Major Level of Service Manuals porates many but not all of the potential cross-modal influ- ences on level of service. Exhibit 24 highlights the key LOS The existing LOS frameworks outlined in the major LOS criteria for each mode. Exhibit 25 shows how the various manuals generally do not provide comparable LOS results modes can affect each of these key LOS criteria. across modes. This is due to different definitions of level of service and different measurement scales used by the various manuals for each mode: 2.3 Conclusions Current Agency Practices 1. The HCM Urban Street LOS measures are not based on surveys of traveler satisfaction and thus cannot be com- Public agencies make extensive use of the Highway pared with the traveler satisfaction based LOS measures Capacity Manual and the Florida Quality/Level of Service contained in the TCQSM and FDOT manuals. Handbook for planning and designing urban streets. The 2. The TCQSM provides no single LOS result for transit but Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual is a recent de- several different dimensions of LOS making mode-to- velopment and has not yet seen extensive adoption by pub- mode comparisons difficult. The TCQSM LOS measures lic agencies. are derived from surveys of traveler satisfaction. Level of service is used on a daily basis in most public agen- 3. The FDOT multimodal framework, because it relies on cies to assess the adequacy of the design of urban streets, to the HCM and TCQSM manuals for auto and transit, suf- assess the effects of new development on urban street opera- fers from the same comparability limitations as those tions, and to identify the appropriate mitigation measures for manuals. The auto LOS in particular is not comparable new development. These analyses however focus primarily on with the bike and pedestrian LOS scales, because they are auto level of service. based on different dimensions of perceived and measured The survey of current agency practices found little actual traveler satisfaction. use of level of service for the planning or design of urban streets for transit, bicycle, and pedestrian modes, except in The major existing LOS manuals are spotty in their incor- the State of Florida where it is a recent development. There is, poration of known modal interactions on modal LOS. Either however, a great deal of interest among public agencies in the selected modal LOS measure (such as hours of bus ser- acquiring the ability to estimate and forecast level of service vice) is insensitive to the effects of other modes or an accepted for all four modes, especially if the issue of comparability of methodology has not yet been established for predicting the results across modes can be achieved. intermodal effects.