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42 value of each criterion. For example, traffic volumes of < 400, speed, and finished about 100 yards downstream of the 400-800, and 800+ vph were all represented. The locations with intersection. high pedestrian volumes were mostly in San Francisco, as Dr. Huang selected 32 of the video pedestrian clips for many parts of San Francisco are characterized by high levels of inclusion in the DVD that would be used during the pedes- pedestrian activity. The locations with high traffic speeds and trian roadway LOS data collection events. Exhibit 43 lists the traffic volumes were mostly in Tampa, as many parts of Tampa geometric and operational characteristics of the locations are characterized by high speeds and volumes. shown in these clips. Dr. Huang and a professional videographer videotaped the pedestrian locations in Tampa and San Francisco during Development of Master DVDs March and April 2006. The filming protocol followed that pioneered and tested in 2004 by Sprinkle Consulting in their The research team members decided in the spring of 2006 research Arterial Level of Service for Arterials project for that a maximum of 10 video clips for each mode were to be FDOT. Videotaping was performed with a steady-cam unit. viewed in each study location and ratings gathered for each A stereo microphone mounted on the camera was used dur- from participants. The decision to limit the videos to 10 clips ing videotaping. The videographer filmed the environment per mode was partially based on the need to maintain the while walking the intersections and facilities, obeying all attention of study participants and also to maintain a total pedestrian signals in the process, while Dr. Huang provided testing time of between 2 and 3 hours, including time for an recommendations concerning filming protocol and start and informal focus group. The team also decided to select four end points and served as a safety coordinator (see Exhibit 42). specific clips for each mode to be shown in each of the four To ensure a consistent recording methodology that reflected cities, so that one could later attempt to isolate the influence typical pedestrians' scanning behavior, the research team de- of variables such as population density, population, and veloped, tested, and used a protocol for proper camera pan- expectation of travel conditions on traveler ratings of LOS ning techniques to keep the sidewalk on the right edge of the across the four cities. Next, six additional clips per mode were frame to focus as much as possible on the roadway, rather selected to be shown in each of the four study locations. than objects outside the right-of-way. Finally, a pilot test clip for each mode was selected and shown At each location, the researchers filmed multiple "takes," in each of the fours cities to help orient participants to the each with a different length of signal delay. The researchers mode they were to rate for that portion of the study. started about 100 yards upstream of the intersection, taped Exhibit 44, Exhibit 45, and Exhibit 46 show the specific while walking at a normal (approximately 4 ft/sec) pedestrian sequence of video clips shown in each of the four study loca- tions. Clips shown in all four locations are highlighted--they show up at different points in the sequence. The specific Exhibit 42. Pedestrian Video Camera Mount. sequence of clips shown in each city was intentionally ran- domized so as to minimize the likelihood of respondent fatigue biasing the results. Efforts were made to normalize the length of testing time in each of the four study locations while pro- viding a range of factors to participants in each study location. Using the GMU Media Laboratory facilities and staff, a set of master DVDs was created for each of the four testing locations. Efforts were made to maintain the highest possible quality of video to enhance the video presentation portion of the study; this requirement resulted in the creation of one DVD per mode per city, resulting in 12 master DVDs, which were later used in the data collection process. To maintain consistency among the clips, GMU Media Laboratory staff worked with the video production crew hired by Sprinkle Consulting to ensure that video clips had the same look and feel of those created by GMU. GMU Media Laboratory staff provided detailed editing instructions, which were followed perfectly by the production crew in Florida, while creating the pedestrian and bicycle clips. Each video clip was edited to include an opening title which read "Clip XXX" on a black background, next the title would fade out and the video clip showing a particular trip would begin. At

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Exhibit 43. Geometric & Operational Characteristics of Pedestrian Video Clip Locations. (continued on next pg)

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Exhibit 43. (Continued).

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Exhibit 43. (Continued).