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18 CHAPTER EIGHT AVIATION LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE AND VIBRATION Another new area of study not addressed in the original 1985 International Airport produced a controversial report of document is low-frequency noise (LFN). LFN represents a which FICAN was highly critical that described a new noise special issue because outdoor A-weighted noise measurements metric and dose-response relationship for LFN (FICAN on may not appropriately reflect LFN levels that can induce the Findings . . . 2002). potentially annoying secondary emissions inside residences near runways where the jet noise at the start of take-off roll At the present time there is no universally accepted method and/or the jet noise from thrust reversers may cause LFN levels of describing LFN and its impact on communities around that are not typical of other areas in the airport environs. LFN airports. Some efforts to use the C-weighting for this purpose is not absorbed by the atmosphere or blocked by terrain and have been noted; however, this approach represents a poor buildings as well as higher frequencies. Therefore, LFN can surrogate for making octave or one-third octave measurements sometimes be audible at farther distances than higher frequency at the lower frequencies because the C-weighting will include noise. sounds in frequencies above those that induce rattle. LFN has been studied at a small number of airports where Current studies done under the Partner/COE (Center of community concern has been acute. The general conclusion Excellence) programs under sponsorship of the FAA and from these studies is that LFN can induce structural building NASA shed more light on the levels of low-frequency sound response that may cause rattle of windows, fixtures, pictures, needed to induce rattle effects. The results remain controver- and the like, causing annoyance well beyond the annoyance sial. The results of the Partner/COE Project 1 low-frequency expected based on noise level alone. An Expert Panel con- noise study were released in April 2007 (Partnership for AiR vened by the communities around the MinneapolisSt. Paul Transportation Noise & Emissions Reduction 2007).