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19 CHAPTER NINE AVIATION NOISE EFFECTS ON WILDLIFE AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS The effects of aviation noise on animals have been studied biologically significant changes in behavior; and (5) alters extensively over the past 20 years, with much of the work population, including declines in abundance, changes in dis- being conducted by U.S. Air Force-sponsored researchers. tribution, or reproductive failures. The studies have revealed that the effects are highly species- dependent and that the degree of the effect may vary widely. Although it is not possible to generalize a dose-response Responses of animals to aircraft noise vary from almost no relationship for all wildlife and farm animals, the reader is reaction to virtually no tolerance of the sound. The question referred to specific Tables A1 through A4 in chapter nine of of how adaptable animals are remains largely unanswered. Appendix A for a summary of findings of effects of aircraft Both wild and domesticated animals have been studied, noise and sonic booms. Of noteworthy reference is the National although more research has centered on domesticated or Park Service's annotated bibliography on impacts of noise and laboratory animals such as rats and mice. overflights on wildlife ("Annotated Bibliography . . ." 2005). It is a comprehensive annotated bibliography, with results Although noise is often defined as unwanted sound for presented in three-column format. The report also includes humans, it has been suggested that it is also the same for 76 documents divided into categories. Although it is impossi- animals. "Noise" is best defined as any sound that (1) causes ble to generalize or summarize the results of such a broad range hearing loss; (2) masks signals needed for communication, of studies in this synthesis, it is clear that some reports found navigation, prey detection, predator avoidance, and environ- dramatic effects, whereas others found that other factors over- mental monitoring; (3) effects non-auditory health; (4) effects whelm the noise effects.