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23 CHAPTER THIRTEEN CONCLUSIONS Nearly every aspect of aviation, and related technology, has reading comprehension and learning motivation, particularly changed since the 1985 publication of FAA's Aviation Noise for those children who are already scholastically challenged. Effects. Although much has been learned, both technically Other studies indicate increased stress levels for children in and socially, the process of identifying, quantifying, and high-noise environments. New best practices designs for alleviating noise effects of aviation remains an art. We now interior classroom acoustics and speech intelligibility have know that because aviation noise does not approximate those been completed, but do not address intermittent noise such as of occupational health criteria, hearing loss is unlikely; avia- aviation noise. Some research has indicated that effects of tion noise effects do not influence newborn birth weight, and aviation noise may differ from the effects of other transporta- annoyance may be largely influenced by non-acoustic factors. tion noises. Speech interference, although quite important, Sleep interference, with great variability between laboratory has not had the benefit of research as related to intermittent and in-home studies, occurs much less than previously thought. noise sources. We have also learned that cross-sectional studies are notori- ously difficult to interpret, often report conflicting results, New definitions and criteria for natural soundscape in and do not result in dose-response relationships. national parks and Native American tribe lands are being established, and new dose-response relationships may be used Investigations that report a distinct percentage of the to guide important policy decisions. Low frequency noise with population who are "highly annoyed" at any given day-night its related vibration, meteorological, and topological data con- average noise level may be incorrectly interpreted as having a tinue to drive modeling improvements, and correct some lim- more precise meaning than should be taken from the data. ited under-predictions of sideline-noise levels. Home property Areas of annoyance that remain to be investigated include the values may have limited relationship to noise levels, and future relationship between single-event noise levels and annoy- research linked with powerful geographic information system ance. Use of data not previously available, including airport tools may provide new insights. Although long-term averages noise monitoring systems, flight tracking systems, and are typically used in conjunction with land use planning and geographic information systems, may prove to be a rich residential property location, new research indicates that the source of data in understanding annoyance and meteorologi- use of Leq (equivalent sound level) may display a greater accu- cal and topographical effects. racy in identifying areas most affected by aviation noise. Aviation noise effects on schools and school children In conclusion, despite decades of research and new, well- have been well-researched and documented. Recent studies documented information, aviation noise effects continue to indicate a potential link between aviation noise and both be an enigma waiting to be solved.