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7 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY In 1985, the FAA published Aviation Noise Effects, Report No. 9. Aviation noise effects on property values, FAA-EE-85-2, to summarize and synthesize the effects of 10. Effect of meteorology on aviation noise, and aviation noise in several topical areas. The report provides 11. Effect of topography and ground absorption on avia- summaries of critical research, conclusions of pertinent tion noise. research, and, when possible, conclusions, criteria, or perspec- tives for the reader. This document has been a valuable These 11 topic areas are outlined in the following 11 chap- resource for the airport community for more than 23 years. ters, which lead to a section of conclusions. For the reader's Because the literature on the topics reviewed in the 1985 report ease, each of these chapters has its own discussion, summary, has expanded, it was determined that the time was right to and annotated bibliography in Appendix A. An extensive ref- supplement it with an up-to-date synthesis. erence list, glossary, and key word index complete the report. The goal of ACRP Synthesis S02-01 is to provide a supple- After a complete review of this landmark FAA report, a mental report on the current state of knowledge and practice literature search was undertaken. The most representative in the selected topical areas regarding the effects of aircraft studies completed since 1985 were selected, annotated, and noise. categorized for each of the following topic areas: In addition to the 1985 FAA report, the reader should be 1. Health effects of aviation noise, aware of an EPA report, mandated by Congress, Information 2. Annoyance and aviation noise, on Levels of Environmental Noise Requisite to Protect Public 3. Sleep disturbance and aviation noise, Health and Welfare with an Adequate Margin of Safety 4. Speech interference and aviation noise, (1974). This report is commonly referred to as the EPA Levels 5. Effects of aviation noise on schools, Document. The Levels Document is significant because it 6. Effects of aviation noise on parks, open space, and presents a comprehensive background on the effects of noise wilderness areas, in many of the topic areas discussed in this synthesis. Even 7. Aviation low-frequency noise and vibration, though the document is now more than 30 years old, and some 8. Aviation noise effects on wildlife and domestic of the information has been updated (particularly with respect animals, to sleep disturbance), it is still a valuable reference.