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9 weights. The reader is also referred to chapter six, "Effects of considerable research, review of previous research with new Aviation Noise on Schools" for additional information. thought, and new independent research, as well as collabora- tive efforts to identify health effects related to aviation noise have been completed. Some studies have identified a poten- HOSPITALS AND CARE FACILITIES tial correlation between increased hypertension and aviation or road noise above certain noise thresholds; however, other A careful search for research regarding aviation noise and studies contradict such findings. Occupational noise often hospitals and care facilities did not identify any studies that becomes an intricate concern. Health effects on children, address this particular issue. Most airport noise and land-use particularly those with decreased cognitive abilities, mental compatibility guidelines list hospitals and care facilities as disturbances, or other psychological stressors, and studies of noise-sensitive uses, although there are no studies that have pregnancy and low infant-birth weights, all indicate there is identified health effects associated with aviation noise. How- no correlation between aviation noise and childhood psychi- ever, there are numerous studies that identify problems with atric disorders, environmental factors, or low infant-birth internal hospital noises. weights. Additionally, recent studies conclude aviation noise does not pose a risk factor for child or adolescent hearing HEARING IMPAIRMENT loss, but perhaps other noise sources (personal music devices, concerts, motorcycles, or night clubs) are a main Although aviation noise exposure and potential hearing risk factor. Because aviation and typical community noise impairment during all ages of life are common research levels near airports are not comparable to the occupational or areas, the research is much more definitive, usually owing to recreational noise exposures associated with hearing loss, adequate controls, data, and identifiable conclusions. For hearing impairment resulting from community aviation noise example, in 1999, a study by Ludlow and Sixsmith reviewed has not been identified. nine studies undertaken in the vicinity of seven civil and military airports, and two laboratory studies, finding that "the Although newer studies suggest there may be a potential laboratory studies suggest that permanent threshold shifts are relationship between aviation noise levels and hypertension unlikely to be induced by exposures to aircraft noise thought or ischemic heart disease at noise levels as low as 50 dBA Leq to be typical of real life." The reviewed studies concluded (equivalent sound level), further research is necessary. One "environmental noise does not appear to approach recog- such study only found that effect for night aircraft noise nized occupational noise limits. Furthermore, it may be that (Eriksson et al. 2007). Among the confounding factors in the intermittency of environmental noise itself may protect studies of hypertension and aircraft noise is that aircraft noise hearing from damage" (Ludlow and Sixsmith 1999). These exposure is taken from noise model estimates without regard conclusions are echoed in several other studies as well, to ambient noise levels. The ambient noise levels in urban because environmental noise does not approximate occupa- areas and most suburban areas exceed 50 dBA Leq. Further, tional noise levels or recreational noise exposures (e.g., only a handful of recent studies attempted to segregate health personal listening devices, concerts, or motorcycles), as it effects of noise from that of air pollution near airports. does not have an effect on hearing threshold levels. Lastly, studies have also shown that early noise exposure as a child Despite decades of research, including review of old data on military jet aircraft bases does not make one more sus- and new research efforts, health effects of aviation noise ceptible to noise-induced hearing loss. continue to be an enigma. Most, if not all, current research concludes that it is as yet impossible to determine causal In conclusion, in the more than 23 years since publication relations between health disorders and noise exposure, of Aviation Noise Effects (Newman and Beattie 1985) despite well-founded hypotheses.