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4 States have adapted a wide variety of techniques and con- A highway cost allocation study bibliography is presented at ventions to estimate highway use and the payment of user the conclusion of this report. fees by vehicle classes. This study examines the HCAS state of the practice by addressing numerous questions and issues, The research team, working with TRB staff, also con- including: ducted a survey of all 50 state DOTs. The survey question- naire is presented in Appendix A. Before sending the · States that have completed cost allocation studies; questionnaire to state DOTs, a test survey was completed by · Software used in the cost allocation study; representatives of the Arizona DOT and Vermont Agency of · Vehicle classes and how they are differentiated; Transportation (VTrans). Based on comments received from · Functional class of the road systems considered in these reviews, a revised questionnaire was sent to all mem- HCASs; bers of the AASHTO Standing Committee on Highways, · Conceptual basis of HCAS methods; which is comprised primarily of directors of highway agen- · Methods used (e.g., cost-occasioned, marginal costing, cies. Copies were also sent to all of the other members of the and benefits analysis); Standing Committee on Highways, and all members of · Selecting appropriate cost allocators; AASHTO's Committee of Planning Directors for their infor- · Methodologies for revenue allocation [e.g., vehicle mation and advance notice that the state HCAS questionnaire miles of travel (VMT), number of vehicles, roads used, might be forwarded to them by their state DOT or highway and over-the-road weights]; director. · Treatment of diversions of highway-user revenues to other uses (e.g., law enforcement and education); Appendix B contains a detailed report on the results of the · Implementing cost responsibility in the presence of survey. A good representation of state experience has been tolling and other facility-specific fees; reported, with 33 of the 50 states responding. States that · Relationships between vehicle characteristics and road- responded included nearly all that are known to have com- way usage and capacity demands; pleted HCASs since 1982, the year of the federal study that · Relationships between vehicle characteristics and pave- made the most ambitious improvements in research and ment damage; study methodology. The 33 reporting states also include a · Methodologies for allocation of load- and non-load- good representation of states that have not completed HCASs related pavement and bridge costs; and since 1982, thus providing a good indication of why many · Emerging issues (e.g., allocating costs associated with states do not perform these studies. congestion, air pollution, noise, human health, and prop- erty damage). This report is comprised of six chapters, including this in- troduction. Chapter two documents the history and evolution STUDY APPROACH of state HCASs in the United States from 1982 to the present. In chapter three, there is an examination of the state of the To address the issues listed previously in this section, the re- practice regarding numerous key methodological issues dealt search team conducted an extensive literature review and with in state HCASs. Why state HCASs are performed and implemented a survey that was distributed to all 50 state de- what impact they have is discussed in chapter four. Chapter partments of transportation (DOTs). The research team used five includes an extensive set of guidelines for analyzing available in-house resources and facilities to identify relevant state data in a comprehensive HCAS and for responding to a literature. The research team reviewed a broad spectrum of wide variety of other opportunities and challenges relating to technical material, ranging from industry trade journals to the equity of tax structures, emerging issues, problems in university databases. The following sources of information implementing HCAS findings, dealing with the roles of dif- and literature were reviewed: ferent levels of government, and others. In chapter six, there are study conclusions and recommendations including an · Proceedings of TRB annual meetings; evaluation of options to improve the prospects for the future · Transportation Research Records; of state HCASs in response to recent challenges. · Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) bibliographic database; The report also includes references, an HCAS bibliogra- · National Transportation Library; phy, a list of acronyms, and a glossary. In addition, the report · U.S.DOT, FHWA; contains three appendices. Appendix A is the state HCAS · State DOTs; survey questionnaire that was distributed to state DOTs. · Web of Science and National Technical Information Appendix B summarizes the results of the survey. Appendix Service (NTIS) website; C contains a letter from the Vermont Agency of Transporta- · Industry representatives. tion detailing problems with the FHWA State HCAS Model.