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TRANSIT TCRP REPORT 128 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Robert I. Brownstein AECOM Consult, Inc. CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley MEMBERS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority John Bartosiewicz MEMBERS McDonald Transit Associates J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Michael Blaylock Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Jacksonville Transportation Authority Linda J. Bohlinger John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA HNTB Corp. Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Raul Bravo Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Raul V. Bravo & Associates Norfolk, VA Peter Cannito William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority--Metro North Railroad David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Gregory Cook Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Veolia Transportation Charlottesville Terry Garcia Crews Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN StarTran Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Nathaniel P. Ford, Jr. SF Municipal Transportation Agency Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Kim R. Green Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City GFI GENFARE Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Jill A. Hough Technology, Atlanta North Dakota State University Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Angela Iannuzziello ENTRA Consultants Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore John Inglish Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Utah Transit Authority Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Jeanne W. Krieg Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta David A. Lee Connecticut Transit Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Clarence W. Marsella C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Denver Regional Transportation District Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Gary W. McNeil Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR GO Transit Michael P. Melaniphy EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Motor Coach Industries Frank Otero Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC PACO Technologies Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Keith Parker Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Charlotte Area Transit System Michael Scanlon Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT San Mateo County Transit District George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, Beverly Scott National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the FTA James Stem Interior, Washington, DC United Transportation Union Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Frank Tobey John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT First Transit John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Officials, Washington, DC William W. Millar Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT APTA J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS TRB William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC John C. Horsley AASHTO Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James D. Ray James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT FHWA James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, APTA U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks TRB *Membership as of June 2008. *Membership as of May 2008.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 128 Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel G. B. Arrington PB PLACEMAKING Portland, OR Robert Cervero UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY Berkeley, CA Subject Areas Planning and Administration Public Transit Rail Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 128 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project H-27A and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN: 978-0-309-11748-7 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2008907872 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2008 Transportation Research Board adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT PERMISSION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act purposes and resources of the National Research Council. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Committee defines funding levels and expected products. manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 128 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor TCRP PROJECT H-27A PANEL Field of Service Policy and Planning Richard G. Bickel, AICP, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Philadelphia, PA (Chair) Edward A. Beimborn, University of WisconsinMilwaukee, Milwaukee, WI Todd Hemingson, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Austin, TX Jack Kanarek, New Jersey Transit Corporation, Newark, NJ Jack Limber, San Diego, CA Anastasia Loukaitous-Sideris, University of CaliforniaLos Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Jeff Ordway, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Oakland, CA Jeffrey L. Spencer, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Effie Stallsmith, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported was performed under TCRP Project H-27A, lead by G. B. Arrington and Robert Cervero. Other authors of this report are Todd Borkowitz, Kimi Iboshi Sloop, Emily Hull, Jennifer Rosales, PB PlaceMaking, Portland, Oregon; Shelley Poticha and Jeff Wood, Center for Transit Oriented Develop- ment, Oakland, California; and Robert Dunphy and Carl Koelbel, Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C. Cover art: Illustration by Dan deAngeli.

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FOREWORD By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 128: Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel provides original data on TOD residential trip generation and parking, the behavior and motivation of TOD residents, employees, and employers in their mode choice. The report also identifies best practices to pro- mote, maintain, and improve TOD-related transit ridership. This report will be helpful to project, land-use, and transportation planners; transit agencies; the development community; and federal, state, and local decision makers considering transit- oriented development. This research builds on prior work done under TCRP Project H-27, which is published as TCRP Research Results Digest 52: Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United States: A Literature Review and as TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Develop- ment in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. A related publication to this report, TCRP Research Results Digest 52: Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United States: A Literature Review, reviews perti- nent literature and research findings related to TOD and joint development. It contains a bibliography annotated by subject area. TCRP Report 102 is a national assessment of TOD issues, barriers, and successes. TCRP 102 included 10 case studies from a variety of geographic and development settings. Report 102 indicated that increased ridership is the principal goal of transit agencies in supporting TODs. However, increased ridership as a result of TOD is a complex outcome involving behavioral, locational, and situational factors. The ties between livable communities and transit ridership remained largely unaddressed. TCRP Report 128 addresses the following fundamental questions: (1) What are the demo- graphic profiles of TOD residents and employers; (2) What motivates residents or employ- ers to locate in TODs; (3) What are the travel characteristics (e.g., frequency of travel by dif- ferent modes) of people who live or work in a TOD; (4) What was the travel pattern of the TOD resident prior to moving to the TOD; (5) What levels of transit connectivity to desired origins and destinations are required to promote transit ridership at TODs; (6)What moti- vates or impedes transit ridership in a TOD; (7)Which strategies have been effective in increasing transit ridership at TODs; (8) What steps should transit agencies take in support- ing TODs to maximize transit ridership; and (9) What TOD land-use and design features (e.g., mixed land-use, traffic calming, bus bulbs, short blocks, street furniture) have had an effect on travel patterns, transit ridership, or the decision to locate in a TOD?

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 1 Literature Review 4 TOD Housing Transportation Performance 6 Section 1 Literature Review 6 TOD Travel Characteristics 12 Transit System and Land Use Influences 19 TOD Ridership Strategies 22 TOD Resident/Tenant Characteristics 29 Section 2 Does TOD Housing Reduce Automobile Trips? 29 Study Projects 31 Study Methods 32 Data Compilation 36 Comparison of Vehicle Trip Generation Rates 40 How Do Rates Vary? 45 Multiple Regression Predictions of TOD Housing Trip Generation Rates 47 Applying the Research: Four TOD Housing Case Studies 51 Implications of Applying New Standards for TOD Housing 54 Conclusion and Recommendations 57 References