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Project Rationale and Approach 13 The user follows analysis using CAPTA with an asset-specific assessment tool, which may include conducting a full engineering assessment that takes into account facility-specific conditions. · Nuclear hazards or threats are not addressed. These catastrophic threats require mitigation and response measures that are beyond the capacity of a transportation agency. · Cyber threats are not addressed. The evolving nature of cyber threats to the operating and con- trol systems of a transportation agency are best addressed by commercial vendors. Standard practice for any agency is to have a robust, up-to-date cyber security plan. · Routine inspection and maintenance issues are not addressed. These operational measures typically do not require high-level strategic capital allocation measures. · The user has available basic data about the assets to be considered under CAPTA, including physical features, cost, and typical usage of an asset. The information requested in the CAPTA Tool, or CAPTool, was specifically designed to incorporate data known to be readily available to transportation agencies. The project team confirmed the widespread availability of these data. · CAPTA will not provide a costbenefit analysis for any countermeasure. Cost data for coun- termeasures applied for risk mitigation may be quantified. Benefit data, however, are based largely on assumptions regarding the effectiveness of a countermeasure in avoiding or miti- gating the effects of an event. Moreover, these assumptions may be about an adverse event that may never have occurred, and is unlikely to occur. Such assumptions are most common for intentional acts and for operational measures arrayed against a range of threats. Engineered measures have a more reliable data record on which to base an estimate of benefit; however, such tools must be based on a specific measure for specific asset analysis. This kind of specific tactical analysis is beyond the scope of the CAPTA methodology, and any user wishing to pursue such an analysis may benefit from using an asset-specific risk tool. Defining the Problem and Implementing the Solutions The loss of a high-consequence transportation asset could result in casualties, billions of dollars worth of direct reconstruction costs, economic losses, and mission failure for responsible agencies. However, resources do not exist to safeguard every asset owned or operated by an agency. CAPTA attempts to bridge this gap, providing a transparent means to prioritize multimodal assets for resource allocation. Making transportation systems safe and secure is a complex problem that requires balancing mobility, access, and personal freedom with access control, intelligence gathering, screening, and other means. This guide and accompanying computer-based tool provide a resource that transportation own- ers and operators can use in addressing this challenging problem. The most critical element of suc- cess for the CAPTA product is to place the tool in the hands of concerned users so that they can be more effective in evaluating multiple modes of transportation. Transportation industry associations and professional organizations are the natural choices for disseminating this approach. Agencies and associations critical to disseminating this new methodology include those listed in Table 2. Risk and Consequence CAPTA focuses on an explicit challenge to agency management in its planning and budgeting activities. CAPTA encompasses the set of risks flowing from natural hazards and unintentional or intentional events that are not already part of mainstreamed design and standard operational practices. Recent terrorist threats and major natural disasters have stimulated concern over the wide range of risks faced by transportation modes. CAPTA emphasizes the potentially severe consequences from such major events and is an effort to further mainstream risk and security