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14 CAPTA Final Report Table 2. Transportation agencies/associations and audiences to whom they can disseminate CAPTool. Agency or Association Audience AASHTO and American Railway Engineering State departments of transportation (DOTs), and Maintenance Association (AREMA) county highway departments, local transportation authorities, and railroads American Public Transportation Association Transit agencies (APTA) U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S.DOT) Port authorities, turnpike authorities, and Transportation Security Administration (TSA), bridge and tunnel authorities and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) American Underground Construction Membership Association (AUA), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) procedures in an agency, as is already the case for worker safety, traffic incident management, and routine weather events such as snow and ice storms. CAPTA's risk management process focuses on specific threats and hazards with the following characteristics: These threats and hazards can cause significant damage to transportation assets and mission or loss of life. Designed/engineered and operational measures to reduce the risk of these threats and hazards are not yet "mainstreamed" in conventional transportation agency practice. Reasonable and practical consequence-reducing countermeasures to these threats and hazards are available. In keeping with the above approach, CAPTA uses consequence thresholds (for life, property, and mission) to focus risk management only on asset and hazard or threat combinations that merit risk reduction investment at the program planning level. CAPTA defines transportation hazards or threats and the asset classes included in this analysis at generalized levels. These inter- pretations relate both to their potential for significant consequences and to the applicability of countermeasures. This generalization allows the user to move quickly to the issues that are of primary concern regardless of transportation mode, location, or use. This approach relieves the user of the burden of estimating probabilities related to specific threats and hazards or the like- lihood that specific assets are affected. The countermeasure-oriented database relates potential countermeasure strategies directly to consequences and assets. The modest level of effort involved in using CAPTA is intended to encourage mainstream- ing an integrated, high-level, all-hazard, NIMS-responsive, multimodal risk management process into major transportation agency programs and activities. CAPTA also provides the departure point for applying asset-specific vulnerability assessment and countermeasure guides for asset-specific design and cost estimation. Institutional Context for Risk Management The guide does not yield designs or design specifications, but acknowledges sources for more detailed asset-specific countermeasure guidance that exists for each mode. These sources include The United States Coast Guard (DHS) for maritime assets; The Office of Grants and Training (DHS) and the Federal Transit Administration (U.S.DOT) for transit;

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Project Rationale and Approach 15 The Transportation Security Administration (DHS) for general aviation; and The Federal Highway Administration (U.S.DOT), state DOTs, and the NCHRP for highways, bridges and tunnels. Risk management decisions require different information and analysis depending upon the nature of the decision, the organizational level at which the decision is made, and the agency or entity making the decision. Multimodal transportation systems typically cross agency and juris- dictional boundaries, and multiple entities are often involved in managing and operating the facilities or systems. As illustrated in Figure 3, state DOTs work within the context of state and federal funding sources, multiple response agencies, and multiple local authorities. They must be capable of both justifying capital resource requests and allocating existing resources wisely. The guide is intended to assist state DOTs and others in both of these areas. Figure 3 does not show specific authorities or a chain of command because of the differences among jurisdictions. It illustrates the complexities of seeking and allocating resources when mul- tiple agencies and jurisdictions have interests in preparing for and responding to hazards and threats. What is most important about these relationships is that risk management decisions must be coordinated across multiple agencies and jurisdictions if they are to result in the efficient use of the limited resources available at federal, state, regional, and local levels of government. The data model developed to support the CAPTA is the integrating mechanism among multi- ple modes and the variety of assets, hazards, and threats associated with these modes. The CAPTA model provides the user with a convenient interface for accessing the data used to implement the methodology. US Department of US Department of Transportation Homeland Security Regional Emergency State Governor's State Emergency Management Entities Office Management State DOTs (some with State & Local Authorities multimodal scope) (road, transit, rail, etc.) Figure 3. Government levels for risk management resource allocation decisions.