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24 CAPTA Final Report Transit/Rail Stations Transit or rail stations can be aggregated into classes to ease consideration in CAPTA. Length of platform, capacity, and building type can serve as common characteristics for a class. High capacity or transfer stations handling a high percentage of ridership may be entered as single assets. Administrative and Support Facilities This category is intended to capture all fixed asset facilities a transportation operator may own or operate, with the exception of transit or rail stations. The fixed facilities in this category may range from executives' offices to airside passenger terminals. Particular attention may be given to the following examples of fixed facilities: Operations Control Center. Any facility designed, constructed, and equipped with systems intended to monitor and control the transportation environment and the movement of vehicle and rail traffic over and through a transportation section. Substation. Any facility specifically designed to transfer power or water, or provide sewer con- nections between the transportation system and the central utility building. The substation is connected to the utility building and the transportation system via distribution channels but is not the primary source of power, water, or other resources. Utility Building. Any facility specifically designed to provide power to the transportation sys- tem. This facility is operated continuously to achieve its mission, and is connected to both sub- stations and the transportation system through a distribution channel. A utility building may also be designed to provide water or sewer removal from the transportation infrastructure (e.g., using pumps, drainage). Ferries This category is intended to capture any passenger-loaded vessel. The size of the vessel does not matter. In the rare cases where ferries constitute a significant portion of the transportation agency's passenger capacity, an effort should be made to separate the vessels into classes. Fleets Fleets may encompass any regularly used individual passenger vehicle. The most common assets in this category will be buses and passenger transit/rail cars. The base unit for this category is one asset, whereby a train may consist of four to six individual fleet cars. The similarities of fleet vehicles readily lend themselves to groupings into classes. Hazards/Threats All hazards or threats to a transportation system are intentional, unintentional, or a natu- ral hazard. An unintentional hazard describes an action of which there was no predetermined intent to adversely impact the transportation, its users, or associated infrastructure. The sources of an unintentional hazard may be human, but human involvement is not wholly necessary and may be only incidental to the hazard presented by an inanimate object or acts of nature. Unintentional hazards are common to a transportation system. Such hazards include fire, power loss, or equipment breakdown. Unintentional hazards also include structural failure. Many unintentional hazards impact the safety of the below-grade transportation asset, employees, and passengers. An intentional threat is one emanating from the deliberate intent of a person or group to dis- rupt the transportation asset. Normally, this deliberate intent cannot be replicated in nature or through a series of organic happenstances. Intentional threats directly affect the security of the

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CAPTA Components 25 asset. Intentional threat events, such as introducing an explosive or chemical agent, present an uncertain and threatening element into the system. Any explosive or chemical agent has the capacity to wreak havoc upon the transportation system and close it down for an extended period. These disruptions are second to the loss of life and injuries that may result from the successful delivery of a primary threat. Historical evidence shows that key decision-making factors in plotting the location of a terrorist attack are the aggressors' ability to inflict personal damage and the ability to generate publicity. Hazards or threats that will adversely affect the normal operation of a transportation asset and its associated infrastructure are listed in Table 3. Hazards or threats have the potential or proven capability to close a transportation system or to deprive transportation customers of the beneficial use of the facility. The hazards or threats are intended to include categories applicable to highway, rail, air, and water transportation systems. However, the needs of these modes are not exact, and neither are their points of vulnerability and access. All hazards or threats used in the CAPTA process constitute an actual or postulated event. All hazards or threats considered in depth are capable of disrupting an asset or mode of transportation for an extended period lasting greater than 25 hours. These severe events are outside the realm of hazards or threats that a transportation operator routinely handles, such as equipment break- down, utility disruptions, criminal acts, and medical emergencies. The experiences of trans- portation operators in handling these minor incidents are available in learned lessons handbooks and procedural reference materials. Where possible, additional reference material concerning these minor hazards or threats has been noted in this report. Events that are unlikely and extraordinary have also been excluded. These include highly unlikely aggressive events such as a nuclear detonation. Extraordinary airborne hazards or threats are excluded because of the remote likelihood of such an event targeting a transportation asset, Table 3. Hazards or threats to transportation assets across multiple modes. Intent Threats/Hazards Intentional Small explosive devices (fewer than 250 lbs TNT or equivalent) Large explosive devices (greater than 500 lbs TNT or equivalent) Chemical/biological/radiological agents Criminal acts Unintentional Fire Power loss Equipment breakdown Structural failure Hazardous Material Natural Flood Earthquake Extreme weather Mud/Landslide

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26 CAPTA Final Report and the diminished likelihood of the success of such a threat. The hazards or threats discussed in detail are those with a reasonable probability of occurring, or those emanating from available intelligence. There is no guarantee that a transportation operator would face one of these hazards or threats by itself, or in conjunction with another hazard or threat. All transportation operators would find difficulty responding to multiple or coordinated attacks. Manpower and resource limitations would require a triage of priorities in the multiple scenario attack. The greatest asset in preparing for a coordinated, multisite, or multiphased attack would be for a transportation operator to have accurate intelligence that allows time for adequate prepa- ration. This intelligence is extraordinarily difficult to obtain. The transportation operator may in turn accept the possibility of multiple attacks by assembling deterrence, response, and miti- gation measures for the specified scenarios. Taken individually, the scenarios can be prepared for by assembling an adequate defensive posture for all. Recommendations discussed later in this report will outline actions that can improve the defensive posture of the transportation system across several hazards or threats. As an example, if the transportation operator has prepared for an attack on the control center, then the operator is in the best position to withstand an attack on both the control center and on another transportation asset. There are eleven major category groupings for hazards or threats in the CAPTA methodology. All categories have the capability to disable a transportation system for an extended period. The categories are further grouped by intentionality. Some categories, such as fire, may be intentional or unintentional, but have been grouped according to which is more likely to occur. These categories are known or postulated to rail, waterborne, and vehicular transportation. To varying degrees, these cases have occurred in the United States; they will present themselves again. Their capability to disrupt a transportation system is proven; however, their detrimental effects upon the transportation system, equipment, and users may be remediated. Intentional Threats Explosive devices and the introduction of chemical/biological/radiological agents are prohib- ited and defined under United States Code Title 18, Part I, Chapter 113B. The destructive powers of various explosive devices are explained in Table 4. Introduction of Small Explosive Devices Small explosive devices contain fewer than 250 lbs of TNT or equivalent. Delivery is by one to five persons transporting the payload. Introduction of Large Explosive Devices Large explosive devices contain greater than 500 lbs of TNT or equivalent. The method of delivery is either by vehicle or through multiple persons acting in concert to transport the payload. Introduction of Chemical/Biological/Radiological Agents Chemical/biological/radiological (C/B/R) agents are gases, liquids, or solids introduced with the intent of causing physical harm or property loss. Criminal Acts This lower intensity threat represents the range of illegal activities as defined by federal code, state statute, or local ordinance. Examples of criminal acts include handgun violence and illegal discharge of hazardous waste.

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CAPTA Components 27 Table 4. High explosives danger and evacuation distances. Explosives Building Outdoor Threat Description Massa (TNT Evacuation Evacuation equivalent) Distanceb Distancec 5.0 lbs 70 ft 850 ft Pipe Bomb 2.3 kg 21 m 259 m 10.0 lbs 90 ft 1,080 ft Suicide Belt 4.5 kg 27 m 330 m 20 lbs 110 ft 1,360 ft Suicide Vest 9 kg 34 m 415 m Briefcase/ 50 lbs 150 ft 1,850 ft Suitcase Bomb 23 kg 46 m 564 m 500 lbs 320 ft 1,500 ft Compact Sedan 227 kg 98 m 457 m 1,000 lbs 400 ft 1,750 ft Sedan 454 kg 122 m 534 m 4,000 lbs 640 ft 2,750 ft Passenger/Cargo Van 1,814 kg 195 m 838 m Small Moving Van/ 10,000 lbs 860 ft 3,750 ft Delivery Truck 4,536 kg 263 m 1,143 m Moving Van/ 30,000 lbs 1,240 ft 6,500 ft Water Truck 13,608 kg 375 m 1,982 m 60,000 lbs 1,570 ft 7,000 ft Semi-trailer 27,216 kg 475 m 2,134 m a Based on the maximum amount of material that could reasonably fit into a container or vehicle. Variations possible. b Governed by the ability of an unreinforced building to withstand severe damage or collapse. c Governed by the greater of fragment throw distance or glass breakage/falling glass hazard distance. These distances can be reduced for personnel wearing ballistic protection. Note that the pipe bomb, suicide belt/vest and briefcase/suitcase bomb are assumed to have a fragmentation characteristic that requires greater standoff distances than an equal amount of explosives in a vehicle. Source: Protection of Assets Manual (7). Unintentional Hazards Fire Fire sources may be disparate and triggered by any combination of flammable material and ignition. Fire may result from happenstance and does not require an intentional act to occur. Fire, or the pre-fire hazard of smoke, will immediately have a negative impact upon all trans- portation assets by inducing the evacuation of persons and equipment within the structure and surrounding areas. Fire and smoke will decrease visibility to unsafe levels, precipitate collision of vehicles and equipment, and cause personal injury. A fire controlled by firefighting may still result in smoke and water damage at a level sufficient to render a transportation asset unfit for use or occupancy. Structural Failure Structure failure refers to any decrease in the physical integrity of the transportation asset to bear the weight required to carry passengers or freight. The loss of physical integrity requires the asset to be inspected by the transportation owner and major repairs to be completed before it can be reopened for beneficial use by the public.

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28 CAPTA Final Report Structural failure may be sudden or gradual. The scope of this hazard or threat may be minimal, such as a crack in the wall requiring remediation or a pavement ripple requiring the temporary relocation of traffic. Integrity loss may also be catastrophic, resulting in total collapse or flooding of a structure, wreaking widespread loss of assets and loss of life. Despite the best efforts of engineering and maintenance, the potential hazard or threat of a structural failure will always exist. There is no known method to guarantee that a structure will never fail or deteriorate. Proper design, construction, and maintenance may drastically decline the likelihood of a sudden failure; however, unseen geotechnical or aquatic forces may go undetected by asset owners. Inconsistencies and lapses in the design, construction, and maintenance of an asset may collude to create the conditions for a sudden structural failure. Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) may be in liquid, solid, or gaseous form. The quantity of material introduced may be minimal but cause a hazard to users of the transportation system. Hazardous materials include common industrial cleaners used by transportation workers and canisters of pepper spray set off by transit users. In both circumstances, it is unlikely that the maintenance worker or the commuter entered the transportation system with the intent of discharging material into the air. Materials may also include hazardous liquid, which include debris or waste products moved into the transportation system by a vehicle, truck, or rail car. All hazardous materials require specialized remediation that will close a roadway or transit segment to allow processing. Natural Hazards Flood Flooding of an asset is the condition of excessive water inflow that exceeds the engineered pumping capacity and causes a hazard or threat to persons and property. Flooding is typically caused by a calamitous weather event; however, it may be caused by defective pipeline transfer. Earthquake An earthquake is a seismic anomaly that weakens the fitness of a structure to standards less than those designed and intended by the owner. The earthquake will present a hazard to trans- portation users while it is occurring, because of flying debris and geotechnical instability. The earthquake may present a hazard upon its conclusion by weakening assets such that they are no longer usable. Extreme Weather This category includes all means and methods of extreme wind, rainwater, snow, ice, or other act of God that is unusual for its ferocity. An extreme weather event will be characterized by Exhaustion of all available equipment previously assembled for remediation; and Exceeding of all planning thresholds in place at a transportation agency for the conditions of snow, ice, wind, water, and other acts of God. This characteristic would normally include exceeding the "100-year storm" guidance gathered through observation. Mud/Landslide The decrease in soil properties, undermined by water or geotechnical shift may prompt the sudden massive movement of soil causing actual or potential harm to persons and property. The most common historical data in this category involve soil shifts onto roadways or rail facilities because of wet conditions.