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CAPTA Components 33 Tactical efforts include an emergency response to the scene at the time of disruption. Rescue of persons, traffic diversions, and activating backup equipment can restore the asset's operations. The ability to mitigate the consequence of a hazard or threat by preparedness or response depends upon the institution's ability to have well-planned and executed operational measures in place. These measures will likely include the involvement of personnel and agencies beyond the jurisdiction of the transportation owner/operator. The need for advanced planning and tac- tical coordination is crucial for the success of response preparedness if it is to be employed as a mitigating measure against all hazards. Design/Engineering Designed/engineered measures are permanent alterations or additions to an asset requiring substantial investment and expertise. Engineered solutions typically require capital investment and planning. Many engineered measures will extend the usable life of the asset. General Countermeasure Attributes For purposes of application in this guide, the countermeasures have been classified and evaluated to support selection in conjunction with consequence avoidance on an asset and hazard or threat basis. The countermeasures dictionary and effectiveness rating provide a broad range of measures in 32 general categories. Appendix C presents key characteristics, and Appendix D indicates effec- tiveness. This information has been incorporated into the database used in the guide. Three of the key countermeasure characteristics follow: Countermeasure Function. Functions are the classification that indicates what the measure will do. Risk management addresses the complete array of threats and hazards--although as indicated above, not all functions apply equally to given threat/asset/consequence combina- tions. The six basic functions of countermeasures (predict, deter, detect, interdict, response preparedness, and design/engineering) and their definitions are found in Table 6. Cost. Due to the high-level application of this guide, only general estimates of expenditure are provided. The costs are per unit of countermeasure: either a rough estimate of the piece of equipment necessary, or the cost of one person to perform a service. The cost numbers were drawn from construction estimating publications, such as RS Means, and author experience. Implementation Focus. Some countermeasures by their nature are applicable on an asset- specific basis whereas others may be applicable on a system- or area-wide basis with a multi- purpose focus (area-wide). Countermeasures may also be effective on a temporary deployment basis and can be redeployed to other areas or assets upon short notice. Surveillance measures are a firm example of this last focus category. Countermeasure implementation also includes the multipurpose potential of the component measure. The ability of a measure to have another positive effect upon the asset, or asset class, is noted. A common example is CCTV, which may be used to monitor traffic, detect intrusion, and provide information to responders. Countermeasures were assessed to determine their multipurpose potential outside of duty to increase the safety and security of transportation. Many countermeasures have dual uses to sup- port the transportation owner/operator in achieving its mission. A measure that can protect an asset is likely to extend the usable life of the asset. A closed circuit television (CCTV) system can detect disruptions and provide real-time information on vehicular movement. The inclusion of this category in the tables is meant to assist users in choosing their counter- measures. Multipurpose potential may change the prioritization of countermeasures. For exam- ple, some mitigation measures can decrease maintenance and increase the usable life of the structure. Use of such measures could lead to significant cost savings over the life of the structure.

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34 CAPTA Final Report Table 6. Countermeasures functions. Functions Description Prediction This function involves the establishment of an intelligence-gathering organization, including an analysis capability able to determine the probability, place, and time of a likely disruptive event. The function also includes the ability to communicate both to an organization the accurate prediction of an event that may disrupt the plan and to the asset to prepare an operational defense. Deterrence This function applies mainly to intentional threats. The asset owner prevents the attack by reducing the aggressor's real or perceived likelihood of success in carrying out a successful attack on or disruption of an asset of interest. This function can be accomplished in several ways. The first is to instill in the aggressor the belief that the asset owner is able to strike back so overwhelmingly that an aggressor fears retribution for their actions and chooses to move off the target asset. Another is to ensure that the functional capability of the asset is sufficiently robust (through protection or redundancy) such that a disruptive event would have minimal adverse consequences. Additionally, the owner may create uncertainty in the mind of the aggressor through random checks and partial but undisclosed security measures, reducing the aggressor's confidence in carrying out a successful attack and, perhaps, preventing the attack or diverting it to a less critical asset. Detection The asset owner possesses the means to detect when a disruptive event is occurring and is able to communicate this information to an appropriate response capability (e.g., law enforcement, private security patrol). Detection may occur through sensing technologies or physical observation. Interdiction The asset owner possesses the means to respond immediately to a hazard or threat with sufficient force to alter or prevent the introduction of the hazard or threat. Response The asset owner possesses policies, plans, and procedures necessary to Preparedness mitigate a hazard or threat that has been introduced. These may include training to discern a hazard or threat in the asset environment and actions to communicate the information to specially trained personnel. Plans and procedures may also include practiced actions that may be undertaken after the introduction of a hazard or threat. Design/ Designed and engineered durable solutions to mitigate a hazard or threat that Engineering has been introduced and delivered to an asset. These include engineered solutions intended to strengthen an asset to assure its ability to withstand a delivered hazard or threat. The identification of multipurpose potential is based upon realistic expectations of what may be done with the countermeasure. Potential purposes include Pedestrian safety, Traffic surveillance, Public assurance, Anti-theft, Anti-trespassing, Detection of unqualified employees, Decrease of maintenance, Increase of usable life of system, Erosion protection, Protection of data integrity, Protection of investment in data systems, and Dock scheduling (for shipping).