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Introduction Background The CAPTA effort is a continuation of efforts begun following the terrorists attacks of Sep- tember 11, 2001. That event prompted a series of risk assessment and management projects ini- tiated through the Cooperative Research Program managed by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Several risk management guides were prepared independently and were targeted at state transportation agencies that own, operate, or influence specific assets or specific asset classes within the transportation system. They included guides to assess risk and vulnerability for highway assets, rural transit, ferries, tunnels, and bridges. These asset-specific guides provide valuable, current information to owners and operators. This multimodal guide builds upon these prior mode-specific efforts. Much of the transportation-focused risk assessment and risk management guidance avail- able today is asset or threat specific. These approaches to risk management have the following characteristics: The analysis focuses on a select group of assets, or a specific asset. The approaches assume or require substantial knowledge of likely threat/hazard scenarios. The approaches consider many possible scenarios that might disrupt transportation assets. These guides often require knowledge that the user may not possess or easily obtain. The guides are typically specific to one transportation mode or asset class, such as bridges or tunnels. They are not designed to compare transportation assets across transportation modes, such as would be the case with vehicle fleets and tunnels. CAPTA expands the tools available to transportation agencies to acquire and distribute funds. The CAPTA methodology provides a foundation for capital requests based on objective, trans- parent, defensible data and analysis. These well-supported requests made to a legislature or in response to a federal request for grant proposals will help transportation agencies acquire additional funding on the merits of the argument for assets that need resources. The CAPTA methodology helps manage internal resource allocation decisions among multiple modes by providing a means for analyzing needs through an equitable and transparent process that is applied consistently to all assets. The CAPTA methodology is designed to be applied by transportation practitioners without external assistance using the computer-based spreadsheet through which CAPTA is implemented. This introductory chapter provides an overview of why this product was developed and the development process. The tool will be tested and improved through use. 64