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66 CAPTool User Guide means for avoiding adverse consequences, choosing countermeasures that fill gaps in coverage, winnowing those choices through cost estimates, and then packaging them for implementation. The Audience The intended audience for the CAPTA is senior state or regional transportation agency person- nel engaged in evaluating risk across multiple modes to determine budgetary priorities. These senior agency personnel use CAPTA to compare alternatives during a high-level analysis. Minimal staff support is required to complete CAPTA, because detailed engineering information is not required at this level of analysis. Proper use of CAPTA will reveal assets and classes of assets that require further evaluation and mitigation. This subsequent analysis will require technical expertise employing established mode- and asset-specific risk management tools. Users can find asset-specific guides for most transportation modes through the TRB website at www.trb.org/securitypubs/. Risk and Consequence CAPTA helps agency management in its planning and budgeting activities. CAPTA encom- passes the set of risks associated with natural hazards and unintentional or intentional events that are not already part of the mainstreamed design and standard operational practices. Recent terrorist threats and major natural disasters have stimulated concern over the wide range of risks faced by transportation modes. CAPTA emphasizes the potentially severe consequences from such major events and is an effort to further mainstream security procedures in an agency, as is already the case for worker safety, traffic incident management, and routine weather events such as snow and ice storms. CAPTA's risk management process focuses on specific hazards and threats with the following characteristics: These threats and hazards can cause significant damage to transportation assets and mission or loss of life. Design/engineering and operational measures to reduce the risk of these threats and hazards are not yet "mainstreamed" in conventional transportation agency practice. Reasonable and practical consequence-reducing countermeasures to these threats and hazards are available. In keeping with the above approach, CAPTA uses consequence thresholds (for life, property, and mission) to focus risk management on assets and hazard or threat combinations that merit risk reduction investment at the program planning level. CAPTA defines transportation hazards or threats and the assets classes included in this analysis at generalized levels. This generalization allows the user to move quickly to the issues that are of primary concern regardless of trans- portation mode, location, or use and does not require the user to estimate probabilities related to specific hazards and threats or the likelihood that specific assets are affected. The countermeasures database links potential countermeasure strategies directly to consequences and assets. The modest level of effort involved in using CAPTA is intended to encourage mainstreaming an integrated, high-level, all-hazard, NIMS-responsive, multimodal risk management process into major transportation agency programs and activities. CAPTA also provides the departure point for applying asset-specific vulnerability assessment and countermeasure guides for asset-specific design and cost estimation.