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68 CAPTool User Guide CAPTA will not provide a costbenefit analysis for any countermeasure. Countermeasure cost estimates are provided. Quantifying benefit requires an estimate of the effectiveness of a coun- termeasure in avoiding or mitigating the effects of an event. Moreover, this estimate may be about an adverse event that has never and, while possible, is unlikely to occur. Quantifying benefits is most challenging when judging the merits of operational measures intended to prevent or mitigate the effects of intentional acts. Exclusions CAPTA is not intended to replace detailed examination of highly consequential assets or classes of assets. The high-level CAPTA methodology prioritizes resource allocation towards specific assets or classes of assets, which then should be examined using mode-specific guides. CAPTA does not provide a costbenefit analysis of countermeasures. The methodology does not calculate the extent to which specific countermeasures will keep an asset from all harm. It does, however, assist in identifying countermeasures that are likely to assist in preventing adverse consequences to an asset. CAPTA does not attempt to offer predictions of the likelihood or frequency of intentional disruptions. Organization of This Report As seen in Table 1, this report is organized into two parts: Part I provides general background about the development of this methodology, its general philosophy, and approach. It also details the evolution of the CAPTool. Part II, this part, explains the CAPTA system, including all rational and calculation methods. It is intended for those who desire to examine the CAPTA methodology in greater detail. This part also provides a stepwise methodology, describing user inputs and decisions with the tool. The spreadsheet tool that implements the CAPTA methodology is available as a download from the TRB website (www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=9579). Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) developed CAPTA and the accompa- nying CAPTool with the assistance of PB Consult, Inc. The genesis of thought and idea promul- gated in this CAPTool are derived from previous work by and experience of the authors as well as from interaction with practitioners in this field. Basic CAPTool and Expanded CAPTool CAPTool is the computer-based spreadsheet model that implements the CAPTA methodology. It is presented in a basic and an expanded format. The difference rests in the level of detail pro- vided to the user and the requirement for user input. To facilitate ease of use, the User Guide is based on the Basic CAPTool application within the optional Expanded CAPTool explained in the subsequent section. Table 1. Organization of this report. Title Contents Intended Audience Part I Project history All interested parties Part II CAPTool User Guide Technical users of CAPTA

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Introduction 69 The Basic CAPTool has six steps: 1. Relevant Risks 2. Thresholds 3. Asset and Asset Class Inventory 4. Inventory of High-Consequence Assets/Asset Classes 5. Countermeasure Opportunities 6. Results Summary In the Basic CAPTool process, the user accepts the default calculations, costs, and assump- tions and can arrive at results quickly. The user enters minimum data, including the assets to be considered for evaluation. The assumptions made in CAPTool have been vetted by subject mat- ter experts and are documented in Step 4 of this guide. Many users will find the Basic CAPTool sufficient for their needs. Users who may wish to consider the Expanded CAPTool include those with Labor costs and/or materials and supply costs that are substantially different from national averages, and/or Extensive countermeasure preparations that are already in place, reducing the cost of imple- menting countermeasures. The Expanded CAPTool gives users access to the entire process, including costs of measures proposed to mitigate the effects of a disruption. Users can alter the cost of countermeasures, verify assumptions concerning potential vulnerability, and apply individual filters to counter- measure selection. The added flexibility of the Expanded Tool gives users more control over countermeasure costs and choice of countermeasures. Table 2 shows the detail available in the Basic and Expanded CAPTool versions, respec- tively. Note that in the Enhanced CAPTool, Steps 5a, 5b, and 5c precede Step 5 because they affect the costs and types of countermeasures available for selection in Step 5. These addi- tional steps are not available in the Basic CAPTool. Basic CAPTool uses the default counter- measure types and costs and does not enable the user to filter the selection of countermeasures presented. Table 2. Basic CAPTool and Expanded CAPTool. Basic Step Basic CAPTool Expanded CAPTool Expanded Step 1 Relevant Risk Selection Relevant Risk Selection 1 Threat Hazard Vulnerability 1a 2 Thresholds Thresholds 2 3 Asset /Asset Class Inventory Asset /Asset Class Inventory 3 High-Consequence Assets High-Consequence Assets 4 4 Inventory Inventory Countermeasure Costs 5a Selection of Additional 5b Countermeasures Countermeasure Filter 5c Selection 5 Countermeasure Opportunities Countermeasure Opportunities 5 (including asset-specific (including asset-specific opportunities) opportunities) 6 Results Summary, including Results Summary, including 6 by mode by mode