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NCHRP REPORT 525 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency Volume 13: Surface Transportation Security

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of May 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 525 Surface Transportation Security Volume 13 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency JERRY L. GRAHAM JESSICA M. HUTTON SHINIAN CAO MICHAEL FAGEL WILLIAM WRIGHT MIDWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Kansas City, MO S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Operations and Safety Freight Transportation Security Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 525: VOLUME 13 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-59 (22) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11749-4 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2006902911 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 525, VOLUME 13 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs S.A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-59 (22) PANEL Field of Special Projects--Area of Safety Jamie C. Quarrelles, District of Columbia Homeland Security & Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (Chair) Steve Cain, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Michelle S. Davis, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Philadelphia, PA William Finger, City of Charlotte DOT, Charlotte, NC David C. Hodgeboom, Washington Department of Agriculture, Olympia, WA Richard Knighten, U.S. Marshals Service, Louisville, KY Mark Krentz, Kansas DOT, Topeka, KS Edward P. Richards, III, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA William S. Smock, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY Marty Vanier, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Regina McElroy, FHWA Liaison Kimberly Vasconez, FHWA Liaison William "Bill" Brownlow, AASHTO Liaison Casey Emmer, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness Liaison Tony Giancola, National Association of County Engineers Liaison Donald M. Lumpkins, Federal Emergency Management Agency Liaison Sheryl K. Maddux, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Brian M. McGregor, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Bethany O'Brien, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Vincent P. Pearce, U.S. DOT Liaison Barbara Robinson, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By S. A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board There are concerns about the vulnerability of U.S. agriculture to the deliberate introduc- tion of animal and plant diseases (referred to as agroterrorism). Response to agricultural emergencies--whether attributed to agroterrorism or naturally occurring outbreaks of food contamination or animal disease--often requires immediate (within hours) isolation and/or quarantine of potential infection or contamination areas. This guide provides recommended practices and procedures associated with traffic con- trol on local and state roads during agricultural emergencies. The guide should aid state and local officials in responding to agricultural emergencies. The guide was reviewed by many state and local agencies, and workshops were held in Dodge City, Kansas; Mankato, Min- nesota; West Plains, Missouri; and Athens, Tennessee. Scenarios of agricultural emergen- cies were included in these workshops to gauge how useful the guide was in aiding local agencies in establishing and maintaining traffic control in quarantine situations. The guide contains traffic control plans for three levels of traffic control based on the type of disease and location of the traffic control point. The guide is supplemented online with a downloadable PowerPoint slide show and a detailed research report. The Midwest Research Institute prepared this volume of NCHRP Report 525 under NCHRP Project 20-59(22). Emergencies arising from terrorist threats highlight the need for transportation managers to minimize the vulnerability of travelers, employees, and physical assets through incident prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Managers seek to reduce the chances that transportation vehicles and facilities will be targets or instruments of terrorist attacks and to be prepared to respond to and recover from such possibilities. By being pre- pared to respond to terrorism, each transportation agency is simultaneously prepared to respond to natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, as well as human- caused events such as hazardous materials spills and other incidents. This is the thirteenth volume of NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes--each per- taining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. These volumes focus on the concerns that transportation agencies are addressing when developing programs in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that fol- lowed. Future volumes of the reports will be issued as they are completed. To develop this volume in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of signifi- cant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of state departments of transportation. A topic panel of experts in the subject area

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was established to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating the collected data and to review the final document. This volume was prepared to meet an urgent need for information in this area. It records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. Work in this area is proceeding swiftly, and readers are encouraged to be on the lookout for the most up-to-date information. Volumes issued under NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security may be found on the TRB website at http://www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 History of Agroterrorism in the United States 2 1.2 Purpose of the Guide 2 1.3 Organization of the Guide 3 1.4 Foreign Plant Diseases and Foreign Animal Diseases 4 Chapter 2 Phased Response to Agricultural Emergencies 4 2.1 Phase 1: Planning 7 2.2 Phase 2: Initial Response 8 2.3 Phase 3: Long-Term Response 9 Chapter 3 Components of Agricultural Emergency Response 9 3.1 Incident Command System 12 3.2 Resource Management 14 3.3 Communications 14 3.4 Emergency Management Assistance Compacts 15 3.5 Volunteers 15 3.6 Standard Operating Guidelines 16 Chapter 4 Traffic Control Issues 16 4.1 Levels of Traffic Control 17 4.2 Hypothetical Scenario 22 4.3 Detours 22 4.4 Public Information 22 4.5 Traffic Control Plans 30 Chapter 5 Conclusion 30 5.1 Recommended Biosecurity Procedures 31 5.2 Additional Resources 33 References 34 Appendix A Agroterrorism Policy Background 36 Appendix B Terminology