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2 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency involving foreign animal and plant diseases have occurred accidentally or naturally, and they include the spread of the following: Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) in California and Nevada in 2002; Avian Influenza in Texas, Delaware, New Jersey, and Maryland in 2004; Citrus Canker in Florida, detected in 1995 and currently still not eradicated; and Soybean Rust in the South since 2004. The distinction between intentional, natural, and accidental infections is relevant to the response plan in two ways. First, a coordinated intentional attack is likely to stretch the resources of the federal and state governments and to place more responsibility on local gov- ernments to contain and control the outbreak with limited outside help. Second, an intentional attack would require that some law enforcement resources be dedicated to the criminal investi- gation instead of to the emergency response. When Tommy Thompson stepped down as Secretary of Health and Human services in 2004, he expressed concern over the vulnerability of the United States' food supply. Thompson said, "I, for the life of me, cannot understand why the terrorists have not, you know, attacked our food supply because it is so easy to do" (3). His statement raised alarm and increased focus on pro- tecting the country's food supply. 1.2 Purpose of the Guide The purpose of this guide is to aid rural law enforcement and emergency responders in handling traffic control during an agricultural emergency. While local responders may rely on existing Emergency Operations Plans for guidance in implementing general aspects of the response, traffic control is rarely covered specifically in these plans. This guide should fill this gap and supple- ment existing local emergency response plans. In addition, this guide identifies the role of local and state highway agencies in emergency traf- fic control planning and implementation. For instance, many existing emergency response plans leave traffic control solely up to law enforcement officials. Although this may be appropriate in some emergency situations, a rural law enforcement agency will most likely lack the expertise, manpower, and traffic control resources needed to establish and enforce quarantine boundaries. Therefore, county and municipal public works departments, along with local or regional state DOT construction, traffic, and maintenance staff, should be involved in both the planning and implementation of a successful traffic control plan for use in a quarantine or stop movement scenario. This guide will outline the roles of public works and law enforcement and address the need for communication and coordination before and during a response. Because such incredible variation of legal guidelines, resources, and priorities exists between most districts, this guide is not intended to be prescriptive in nature. Instead, it presents a frame- work that focuses on both planning and implementation, emphasizing the importance of inte- grating transportation response guidelines into existing emergency response plans. 1.3 Organization of the Guide This guide describes the necessary elements of both planning and implementing emergency traffic control and provides suggestions for and examples of traffic control at checkpoints and roadblocks. Chapter 2 describes the three phases of the traffic control response to an agricultural emergency, including pre-incident planning, temporary traffic control around the immediate vicinity of the suspected infection, and long-term traffic control around an established quarantine boundary. These phases relate to traffic control in an agricultural emergency and are similar, but not identi- cal, to the NIMS stages of prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Phase 1 is part of