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22 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency 4.3 Detours After determining the quarantine area and the traffic control levels of specific sites, detour routes should be identified. The two primary purposes of specifying detour routes are: 1. To reduce the volume of traffic traveling through the quarantine area. 2. To guide motorists at road closures to alternate routes. The traffic control strategy should guide motorists to alternate routes that circumvent the quarantine area or to traffic checkpoints where motorists can enter the quarantine area after passing inspection. Detours for through traffic on major state routes crossing the quarantine area should be established to reduce through traffic in the quarantine area. For example, traffic on U.S. Route 50 should be detoured to major routes north and south of the quarantine area. 4.4 Public Information Once a quarantine order is issued, the PIO, who is a member of the Command Staff, will initiate the county's public information and media plan to inform the local community of the existence and location of traffic control points and the associated alternate routes. The county public works staff and the state DOT personnel should be consulted when alternative routes are created. In addition, the public should be notified of the possibility of delays at traffic checkpoints, and of the procedures for exiting the quarantine area. Methods for informing the community include public announcements via radio, television, websites, newspapers, and signage announcing the traffic control points. Any public notification should be coordinated with state or federal PIOs attached to area commands. Local responders should identify and make use of information pre- pared in advance or press releases that could be used in responding to an FAD. Public notification will help citizens stay informed of and understand the effects of the quarantine on traffic. Response workers should be trained to refer any press or other project-specific inquiries to the PIO. In addition, workers at traffic checkpoints should be able to provide motorists with maps and necessary information about the incident. 4.5 Traffic Control Plans Figures 4-3 and 4-4 show the traffic controls recommended for Road Closures. The Manual On Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) (4) states that for traffic incidents of an emergency nature, temporary traffic control (TTC) devices on hand may be used for the initial response as long as they themselves do not create unnecessary hazards. The MUTCD also states that, if temporary devices such as flares are used, they should be replaced by devices that are more permanent as soon as possible. During an agricultural emergency, available materials, such as hay bales, old tires, gates, or vehicles with flashing lights, could be used as barricades in the early part of a response. However, these minimal traffic control measures should be replaced with standard devices as soon as they become available. In addition, the traffic control devices should not create unnecessary hazards. For example, vehicles should not be placed across a road where a driver who does not stop has no recourse but to run into the side of the vehicle. Traffic control devices used at night should be lighted or retroreflective. Figure 4-3 shows the minimal signing recommended for a road closure. A Type III barricade blocks the road, but other materials (as specified above) may be used until a sufficient number

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Traffic Control Issues 23 Figure 4-3. Road closure traffic control--initial stage. of standard barricades are available. Table 4-4 shows the traffic control notes for the road clo- sure. These notes discuss the location, personnel, and equipment required at the closure. These notes are patterned after the notes in Nebraska's Traffic Control Monograph (5). Non-law-enforcement personnel should not attempt to forcibly stop vehicles from proceed- ing into or out of the quarantine area. Instead, they should document license plates and descrip- tions of vehicles traveling through the road closure, and report the violation to their branch chief so enforcement officials can respond. If frequent violations of the road closure occur, law- enforcement personnel should be stationed at the location. Many law enforcement organizations have pre-existing standard operating procedures or guidance for stopping and rerouting traffic, and these procedures should be applied. The goal of traffic control at road closures is to ensure that vehicles do not cross the traffic control either into or out of the quarantine area. Traffic control for traffic check points are shown in Figures 4-5 and 4-6. In the initial stage of the response, a traffic checkpoint may be established with a single law enforcement officer and police cruiser. The cruiser lights and signs can serve as advance warning, and the officer can stop vehicles with hand signals. Portable stop signs should be added as soon as possible. Biohazard signs should be used if available. Table 4-5 shows traffic control notes for traffic checkpoints. When additional personnel and equipment are available, the traffic controls should be aug- mented as shown in Figure 4-6. Advance signs should be placed 100 to 500 ft (30 to 150 m) before the traffic stop. Public works employees and their vehicles can be used to install traffic control devices and to supplement advance-warning signs if long queues develop.

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24 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency Figure 4-4. Road closure traffic control--long term stage. The goal of traffic control at traffic checkpoints is to prevent the spread of the disease by ensur- ing vehicular, animal, and equipment traffic is controlled and disinfected if necessary and that no at-risk animals are allowed to move in or out of the quarantine area. Some states have permit procedures that are employed to direct transported animals to holding areas or back to their point of origin. Decisions about issuing permits are normally made by State Department of Agri- culture personnel. Quarantine entrance and exit control is a crucial part of disease containment and response management, and it provides security for residents living within the quarantine area. Only authorized persons should be allowed to enter the quarantine zone. Personnel staffing the traf- fic checkpoints and the access corridor should be provided lists of responders and residents cleared for access. These lists should be compiled in the Planning Section. A state or federally issued form of identification should be required to verify the identification of anyone desiring entry into the quarantine area. After the initial identity verification, a temporary access card, or other traceable indicator of approved access, could be issued to responders and res- idents traveling regularly through the access corridor. Depending on the security level required, such indicators can range from simple color-coded dashboard cards to computer scanned bar-coded access cards. As responders and residents exit or enter a quarantine zone, their identities must be verified, and their names and time of entry or exit should be documented. Any unusual circum- stances associated with an entry or access into the quarantine area should be documented, as well. Traffic control for traffic check points with cleaning and disinfection stations are shown in Figure 4-7. Since time will be needed to establish the cleaning and disinfection station, no

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Traffic Control Issues 25 Table 4-4. Traffic control notes for Level 3--road closure (no access permitted). Location: Road closures should be located near intersections. There should be good sight distance to the road closures at least equal to the braking distance at the speed limit of the roadway. Personnel: Generally at least one person should be located near a road closure to hand out information sheets and to describe detour routes. A law enforcement officer should patrol road closures and respond quickly if needed at a specific site. Possible law enforcement personnel who could be utilized include: local sheriff's staff, state patrol troopers, local police, game and parks officers, and military police from the national guard. Non-law enforcement personnel who can be utilized to staff road closures include county road department staff, state DOT personnel, National Guard, and State conservation staff. Counties can also utilize citizen corps or other volunteer organizations if approved by the county attorney. Non-law enforcement personnel should record any attempt to breech road closures and contact law enforcement. Equipment: The following equipment should be provided for each road closure: Barricades--standard Type III barricades supplemented with plastic fence are preferred, but other available materials such as hay bales, gates, or regular fence can be substituted. The road should be barricaded from right-of-way line to right-of-way line. Signage--at least one advance warning sign is required on each side of the road block. The advance sign should be 100 to 500 ft (30 to 150 m) in advance of the road closure as shown in Figures 4-3 and 4-4. Detour routing signs should be installed as soon as possible. Biohazard signs should be used when available. Personal protective equipment (PPE)--All personnel working at road closures, including law enforcement personnel, should wear safety apparel meeting the requirements of ISEA "American National Standard for High- Visibility Apparel," (6) and labeled as meeting the standard performance for Class 2 risk exposure. In some situations, especially at night, personnel may need apparel meeting the performance standard for Class 3 risk exposure. Other PPE may be required at road closures depending on the specific disease including respiratory protection, as well as eye, face, and head protection in accordance with OSHA regulations in Section 1910.32d. (7) Shelter--Personnel at road closures may use work or personal vehicles for shelter. Lighting--Warning lights may be mounted on barricades and warning signs used for road closures. Vehicles used in traffic control near road closures should display high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights. Road barricades that are not retroreflective should be well-lit at night. Communications--Each person stationed at road closures should be provided with a means of communication with the emergency operations center (EOC). This communication method may include the use of portable radios, pagers, cellar phones, or citizen-band radios. Portable sanitary facilities--These should be provided for personnel stationed at road closures. Maps--personnel stationed at road closures should have maps showing the quarantined area with detours highlighted. reduced or initial stage traffic control plan is shown. Normally, the traffic checkpoint would be established first, and then cleaning and disinfection stations for vehicles and individuals would be established. Diversion points are used for u-turns, as storage for vehicles awaiting disinfec- tion, and for vehicles used only in the quarantined area by responders. Responders may park contaminated vehicles and proceed through individual cleaning and disinfection stations out of the quarantined area. This procedure reduces the number of vehicles that must be disinfected.

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26 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency Figure 4-5. Traffic check point traffic control--initial stage. Figure 4-6. Traffic check point traffic control--long term stage.

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Traffic Control Issues 27 Table 4-5. Traffic control notes for Level 2--traffic check point. Location: Check points should be located on road sections that are relatively straight and flat and well removed from potential sight restrictions so that queues of stopped vehicles are visible from either approach to the traffic check point. Diversion points should be available so that diverted traffic can turn around or wait for further instructions. Personnel: At least one law-enforcement officer with a cruiser should be stationed at each traffic check point. On roads with ADTs of 1,000 veh/day or more, two or more officers may be needed to ensure that delays are not excessive. Possible law- enforcement personnel include: local sheriff's staff, state patrol troopers, local police, game and parks officers, and military police from the National Guard. In the initial stage, a police cruiser with high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights may be used for advance warning of a traffic check point. For long-term operations, if available, two or more non-law-enforcement personnel with vehicles should be stationed at traffic check points to assist officers and to upgrade traffic control devices. Non-law-enforcement personnel who can be utilized include county road department staff, state DOT personnel, National Guard, and state conservation staff. Counties can also utilize citizen corps or other volunteer organizations if approved by the county attorney. Equipment: The following equipment should be provided for each traffic check point: Signage--After initial stages, at least one advance warning sign is required for each direction of travel. The advance sign should be 100 to 500 ft (30 to 150 m) in advance of the traffic stop as shown in Figure 4-6. Biohazard signs should be used when available. Personal protective equipment (PPE)--All personnel working at road closures, including law enforcement personnel, should wear safety apparel meeting the requirements of ISEA "American National Standard for High- visibility Apparel," (6) and labeled as meeting the standard performance for Class 2 risk exposure. In some situations, especially at night, personnel may need apparel meeting the performance standard for Class 3 risk exposure. Other PPE may be required at traffic check points depending on the specific disease including respiratory protection as well as eye, face, and head protection in accordance with OSHA regulations in Section 1910.32d. (7) Shelter--Personnel at traffic check points should be provided with shelter from temperature extremes, winds, and precipitation. Lighting--Street or portable lighting should be provided near traffic stops. Warning lights may be mounted on warning signs used in advance of traffic stops. Vehicles used in traffic control near traffic check points should display high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights. Police cruisers should also display flashing lights. Communications--Each law enforcement officer stationed at road closures should be provided with a means of communication with the Emergency Operations Center (EOC). This communications method may include the use of portable radios, pagers, cellular phones or citizen band radios. Portable sanitary facilities--These should be provided for personnel stationed at traffic check points. Maps--personnel stationed at traffic check points should have maps showing the quarantined area with detours highlighted. The following procedures for cleaning and disinfection stations are taken from Monograph No. 4 (8) from the Nebraska Department of Agriculture. Traffic control personnel may be responsible for routing vehicles to cleaning and disinfection stations but will not normally be involved in cleaning and disinfection activities. When a vehicle or heavy equipment approaches the access corridor from inside the quarantine zone, it will be inspected for external sources of contamination (e.g., manure, mud, soil, bedding, etc.). If the vehicle is grossly contaminated, it will be turned away and the occupants will be directed to return to the place where it became con- taminated for decontamination to remove the gross contamination. Disinfectants do not work on organic material.

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28 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency Figure 4-7. Traffic control for traffic checkpoint with cleaning and disinfection station. If the decontamination and disinfection personnel deem that the vehicle is free enough of contamination to enter the decontamination and disinfection area, it will be driven into the area. At this time, the occupants will be asked to move to an adjacent staging area while the vehicle is decontaminated and disinfected. After the exterior of the vehicle or heavy equipment has been decontaminated and disinfected, its interior will be inspected for contamination. If necessary, the interior will be decontaminated and disinfected as practical. If the interior or exterior cannot be decontaminated or disin- fected to the level required, the vehicle will not be allowed to pass through the access corridor. After the interior and exterior have been decontaminated and disinfected, the vehicle will be moved to a holding area to allow sufficient contact time for the disin- fectant to be effective. During this time, the vehicle will be monitored to make sure it does not dry off. If areas are drying, they will be sprayed with disinfectant using hand- held sprayers. While the vehicle is being decontaminated and disinfected, the occupants will be inspected. The responding lead veterinarian will have developed an exit decontami- nation and disinfection procedure for residents leaving infected premises, and for any possessions or tools they plan to bring out of the quarantine zone. The occupants will be questioned about their implementation of the lead veterinarian's plan. Boot washes will be available if supplemental disinfection is required. If the occupants

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Traffic Control Issues 29 have not implemented the lead veterinarian's plan, they will not be allowed to pass through the access corridor until they have followed the exit plan developed by the lead veterinarian. Traffic control notes for traffic check points with cleaning and disinfection stations are shown in Table 4-6. Table 4-6. Traffic control notes for Level 1--traffic check point with cleaning and disinfection station. Location: Cleaning and disinfection stations should be located in areas away from moving traffic. Check points should be located on either side of the cleaning and disinfection station in the middle of road sections that are relatively straight and flat so that queues of stopped vehicles are visible from either approach to the traffic check point. Diversion points should be available so that diverted traffic can turn around or wait for further instructions. Personnel: At least two law-enforcement officers with cruisers should be stationed at each traffic check point with a cleaning and disinfection station. On roads with ADTs of 1,000 veh/day or more, three or more officers may be needed to ensure that delays are not excessive. Possible law-enforcement personnel include: local sheriff's staff, State patrol troopers, local police, game and parks officers, and military police from the National Guard. If available, two or more non-law-enforcement personnel with vehicles should be stationed at traffic check points to assist officers and to upgrade traffic control devices. Additional personnel will be needed to operate the cleaning and disinfection station. Non-law-enforcement personnel who can be utilized include county road departments, state DOT personnel, National Guard, and state conservation staff. Counties can also utilize citizen corps or other volunteer organizations if approved by the county attorney. Equipment: The following equipment should be provided for each traffic check point with a cleaning and disinfection station: Signage--At least one advance warning sign is required for each direction of travel. The advance sign should be 100 to 500 ft (30 to 150 m) in advance of the traffic stop as shown in Figure 4-7. Biohazard signs should be used when available. Personal protective equipment (PPE)--All personnel working at traffic check points, including law enforcement personnel, should wear safety apparel meeting the requirements of ISEA "American National Standard for High- visibility Apparel," (6) and labeled as meeting the standard performance for Class 2 risk exposure. In some situations, especially at night, personnel may need apparel meeting the performance standard for Class 3 risk exposure. Other PPE may be required at traffic check points depending on the specific disease including respiratory protection as well as eye, face, and head protection in accordance with OSHA regulations in Section 1910.32d. (7) Shelter--Personnel at traffic check points should be provided with shelter from temperature extremes, wind, and precipitation. Lighting--Street or portable lighting should be provided near traffic stops. Warning lights may be mounted on warning signs used in advance of traffic stops. Vehicles used in traffic control near traffic check points should display high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights. Police cruisers should also display flashing lights. Communications--Each law enforcement officer stationed at a traffic check point should be provided with a means of communication with the EOC. This communication method may include the use of portable radios, pagers, cellular phones, or citizen band radios. Portable sanitary facilities--These should be provided for personnel stationed at traffic check points. Maps--Personnel stationed at traffic check points should have maps showing the quarantined area and with the detours highlighted.