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Introduction 3 preparedness and includes planning for traffic control activities that will be required. Response is covered in Phases 2 and 3 and includes initial and long-term traffic control activities. The NIMS stages of prevention and recovery are not covered in this guide. Chapter 3 discusses command structure and the place of traffic control within existing struc- tures. Issues addressed in this chapter include the following: · Stakeholders, responsibilities, and authority; · Potential modifications to existing command structures; · Communication plans; · Mutual-aid; · Standard operating guidelines; · Resource needs and availability; · Resource management, ownership, mobility, and sharing agreements. Chapter 4 discusses the issue of traffic control at an established quarantine boundary. It describes the process for prioritizing road closures and traffic checkpoints and determining the appropriate levels of traffic control at each point. This chapter also contains illustrations of traf- fic control layouts for different levels of control. Chapter 5 concludes the guide by emphasizing the need for planning and flexibility and pro- vides a list of helpful biosecurity measures for responders. This chapter also provides additional background information on agroterrorism, foreign plant and animal diseases, emergency man- agement training, and national emergency preparedness and response documents. Appendix A provides information on the policy background of agroterrorism. Appendix B explains terminology used throughout the guide. 1.4 Foreign Plant Diseases and Foreign Animal Diseases Agricultural emergencies can involve either foreign plant diseases or foreign animal diseases (FAD). Symptoms of both of these types of diseases would normally be seen first by producers. While a veterinarian would normally be called in the case of an animal disease, it is more likely that the county extension agent would be asked to diagnose a plant disease. In most cases, traffic control would be the most challenging when dealing with FADs, and therefore, most of the examples used in this guide are related to FADs such as foot-and-mouth disease.