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CHAPTER 2 Phased Response to Agricultural Emergencies A three-phase response to an agroterrorism incident or other natural or unintended outbreak of a foreign animal or plant disease is presented in this chapter. The three phases are as follows: 1. Phase 1 takes place before an incident occurs, and is termed the planning phase. 2. Phase 2 typically occurs over the first 3 days of the incident, from the time an outbreak is suspected until it has been confirmed, and state and federal resources have become fully deployed. This phase involves an initial response orchestrated by local authorities using local, immediately available resources. 3. Phase 3 involves the long-term response, which is usually supported by state and/or federal resources. In the third phase, any nonstandard traffic control devices used in the second phase should be replaced with standard traffic control devices, and the number of traffic checkpoints and roadblocks may be increased to more thoroughly secure the perimeter of the quarantine area. Table 2-1 provides a breakdown of the three phases. For each phase, the table lists the per- sonnel involved and their likely tasks and responsibilities, as well as information on quarantine authority, traffic control, and timeframe. While each state and local jurisdiction may have dif- ferent response plans and authority structures, the table presents general information that is applicable to most locations. The guide is written with the assumption that the leadership for local response is at the county government level, although other local government units, such as cities, towns, villages, and townships may have leadership responsibility in some cases. 2.1 Phase 1: Planning Phase 1, referred to as the planning phase, should be viewed as an ongoing process that is con- tinually upgraded and refined as threats are better understood and as resources and technolo- gies become available. Phase 1 may include the following tasks: · Identify major agricultural routes through the county; · Develop standard detour routes through the county; · Inventory traffic control devices, such as signs, barricades, changeable message signs, etc.; · Identify other available local items that might be used to provide traffic control; · Develop a command structure with personnel and responsibilities specific to a foreign animal or plant disease outbreak; · Develop traffic control plans for road blocks, traffic checkpoints, and disinfection stations; · Foster relationships among stakeholders (law enforcement, producers, public works, state highway departments, and public health officials); · Develop a communications plan for informing the public of road closure; · Determine legal authority for initiating and enforcing a quarantine or stop movement order; 4
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Table 2-1. Phased response to Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) outbreak. Phase 3: Long-term Response: Phase 1: Planning Prior to Incident Phase 2: Initial Response: Detection to Confirmation Confirmation to Restoration Personnel Tasks Personnel Tasks Personnel Tasks Responsible County Initiate planning, preparation, Law Enforcement Provide enforcement for Foreign Animal Incident Request state or federal Person or Emergency and training for the county's Disease Diagnostician (FADD) issued Comander resources or assistance if Incident Manager response to a FAD. quarantine if necessary. Begin to assess needed. Act as liaison Commander required traffic control if test results are between local, state, and positive and a 6-mi radius buffer zone is federal responses. Identify required. no-access points and controlled-access points. Other Fire and EMT Become familiar with disinfection Land owner where disease is Comply with FADD's instructions regarding Law Supervise staffing at traffic Personnel personnel procedures for different possible suspected (farmer, producer, animal movement and care and Enforcement stops and road blocks, FADs. Identify what equipment is grower, etc.) disinfection of vehicles and people. Stop ensure problems are being needed and where it can be scheduled deliveries and visits to the addressed and training and obtained. premises. guidance are provided as needed. Local producers Implement biosecurity measures. FADD (Foreign Animal Remain on premises, issue verbal State Coordinate care of animals and producer Educate about all producers and Disease Diagnostician) or quarantine if necessary, monitor and Department of stopped in the county. organizations livestock in the area (by required other qualified veterinarian control traffic into and out of infected Agriculture Study epidemiology of or voluntary registration). who can act on behalf of the premises. Maintain communication with personnel outbreak to determine Encourage voluntary cooperation state veterinarian state veterinarian. Make contact with quarantine area and with quarantines and stop county and state emergency manager. necessary biosecurity and movement orders. Direct law enforcement in securing disinfection measures. immediate premises. Assist fire department or other responders with disinfection for people and vehicles that must enter and exit the premises. Law Assess ability to enforce traffic County Emergency Use county's Local Emergency Operations County Implement county's Local Enforcement stops. Determine availability and Response Team Plan (LEOP) to begin preparing for an Emergency Emergency Operations location of additional resources emergency response. Provide support to Response Team Plan (LEOP) [in conjunction for closing roads or implementing FADD in basic emergency support function (and with State Emergency traffic stops (signs, barricades, areas as needed. Public Information (PI) SEMA, FEMA if Operations Plan (SEOP) if patrol cars, etc.). Create Officer should coordinate with PI personnel needed) SEMA is involved] to emergency management at the state level to prepare statements for provide and manage assistance compacts with the public if the FAD is confirmed. emergency support surrounding jurisdictions to functions. provide help with and resources for traffic control efforts. County engineer Work with sheriff to identify State Department of Prepare for state emergency response if County Engineer Finalize and implement and public signs, barricades, and other Agriculture personnel and FAD is confirmed. and Area DOT detour plans according to works equipment. Help identify local SEMA Engineer quarantine area developed roads with high livestock traffic. by epidemiologists. Determine roads suitable to serve as detours for truck traffic. Area engineer Work with law enforcement and Public Health Department Advise on PPE needed according to Public Health Ensure health of and county public works to identify disease suspected. Department responders. maintenance signs, barricades, and other Public Works Install and maintain crew from state equipment. Help identify state and DOT barricades and signs at DOT routes with high livestock traffic. Maintenance road closures, detours, and Develop highway detour plans. Crews traffic stops. (continued on next page)
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Table 2-1. (Continued). Phase 3: Long-term Response: Phase 1: Planning Prior to Incident Phase 2: Initial Response: Detection to Confirmation Confirmation to Restoration Personnel Tasks Personnel Tasks Personnel Tasks State Provide training and State and Fulfill roles as defined in Department of information regarding the state Federal SEOP. Support local Agriculture policies and procedures during Agencies (DOT, authorities as needed. representatives a FAD outbreak. Dept. of Conservation, Highway Patrol, National Guard) Public Health Prepare information about risk Other Provide additional Department to humans from various FADs. Volunteers support and equipment (firefighters, as needed (traffic control, contractors, off- disinfection, care of duty officers or animals, provide maintenance equipment). staff, community groups) Authority for State Depending on the state, one Foreign Animal Disease States may have varying policies on who has the State States may have varying Quarantine or Veterinarian, of these officials may issue Diagnostician or other authority to issue a quarantine on behalf of the Veterinarian, policies on who is Stop Governor, quarantines or stop movement qualified veterinarian state veterinarian, but in all cases, a FADD who Governor, responsible to declare a Movement Livestock orders when a FAD is has inspected the animals and believes that a FAD Livestock quarantine or stop Commissioner suspected or detected in his or is possible or highly likely can issue a quarantine Commissioner movement order, but or State her state or in other states in on behalf of the state veterinarian. The quarantine or State once a FAD is confirmed, Department of the United States. can prohibit the movement of animals and can Department of it is likely that livestock Agriculture require disinfection of people who must leave the Agriculture movement in the region, Director premises. Director, and potentially across the Secretary of county, will be stopped Agriculture completely. (USDA) Traffic Identify routes of high animal traffic. Locate Restricting movement into and out of infected and surrounding premises. Farm Epidemiologists will determine size of Control producers. Estimate livestock moved into, out of, entrances blocked with patrol cars, or other barriers in place. Certain local roads infected zone and buffer zone (estimated 6- and through the county. Plan detours for major around the premises might be closed using patrol cars, barricades, hay bales or mi radius). All routes in and out should be routes and routes that pass through farms or near other devices. closed or staffed as a traffic stop and feedlots, sale barns, slaughterhouses, etc. disinfection station. Stops and closures should be to MUTCD standards as resources and time allow.