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Phased Response to Agricultural Emergencies 7 Identify, with the help of public health officials and veterinarians, the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and disinfectants to stock in case of an emergency; Train responders on traffic control procedures, such as establishing road blocks, traffic check- points, and cleaning and disinfection stations; Plan for response measures in the event that a bordering county or state suspects or confirms animal or plant disease; Form emergency management assistance compacts with surrounding law enforcement and highway or public works agencies; Identify contractors with equipment or trained personnel that may be available to assist in an emergency response; Determine areas in which to shelter diverted livestock; and Determine if sufficient quantities of common radio channels, protocols, and equipment are available. In order to carry out these tasks, all identified stakeholders must be involved in Phase 1 plan- ning. Law enforcement agencies are often given the responsibility of handling traffic control because they are trained in directing traffic and stopping vehicles for traffic violations and sobri- ety checks. However, the traffic control needed to enforce a quarantine with a radius of several miles may very well exceed both the training and the resources of a local law enforcement agency. Because detours will need to be established, the agencies that maintain those detour roadways should also be involved in the planning process. For instance, the local office of the state high- way agency and the city and county public works departments can contribute information about traffic volume, flow patterns, and roadway characteristics. While most communities probably lack experience with quarantine detours, it is likely that they have developed detours for road closures due to construction, weather, or natural disasters. This experience is useful and should be considered when planning detours for an agricultural emergency. Local producers (farm asso- ciations and commodity groups) can provide feedback on traffic routes and delivery patterns of agricultural products and livestock. Furthermore, agricultural officials, local public health offi- cials, farmers, botanists, entomologists, conservationists, and veterinarians can offer advice on how plant and animal diseases are spread and the best methods for disease containment. Representing a variety of disciplines in response planning will lead to a more robust and thor- ough plan. 2.2 Phase 2: Initial Response Phase 2 concerns the intermediate traffic control to be implemented as soon as a foreign ani- mal or plant disease is suspected with the resources immediately available to the local agency. At this point, traffic control will be dictated by the policy of the county and state in which the quar- antine has been issued. If the local Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician (FADD) determines that a foreign animal disease is possible or highly likely, he or she may issue a quarantine on the livestock at a par- ticular farm, ranch, or other agricultural center, as well as the surrounding farms, on behalf of the State Veterinarian. Alternatively, the Secretary of the State Department of Agriculture or the Governor, depending on where the authority lies, may issue the quarantine order. State and federal officials will be made aware of the situation as soon as the FADD makes a preliminary diagnosis during his or her site visit. Local law enforcement may be asked to help enforce the quarantine. Samples from the potentially affected animals or plants will be sent to a USDA authorized labo- ratory to be tested for the presence of a disease, but results may not be available for 24 to 72 hours.