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52 further on essential steps in enacting new local and regional cies and programs. Public transportation benefits include the revenues for transportation in their 2005 report Local Trans- following:79 portation Sales Taxes: California's Experiment in Transportation Finance. In the study, they concluded the following: Increased energy efficiency through reduced motor fuel consumption and reduced dependence on foreign oil; The four most important factors in the popularity of LTST's Enhanced environment through reductions in motor vehi- [Local Transportation Sales Taxes] . . . are . . . specific lists of cle emissions--including carbon monoxide, carbon diox- transportation projects, control of the revenues by the counties in which the tax is collected, finite lives [fixed term for revenue- ide, volatile organic compounds (the precursors of smog), raising authority and collection], and direct approval by the nitrogen oxide, and particulate matter--and reduced con- voters.78 sumption of open space; Reduced growth in traffic congestion from ever-increasing VMT; 5.2 Arguments for Increased Increased freedom and personal mobility through in- Funding for Public creased transportation choices for all travel markets: choice Transportation riders, commuters, and those who may be transportation In recent years, greater attention has been paid to the ratio- disadvantaged; nales used to support initiatives aimed at expanding the fund- Increased access to opportunity, including improved ac- ing for public transportation. The heightened attention is, to cess to jobs, to essential social and human services, to em- a large degree, emerging from the realization that (1) local, ployment, to education, and to training opportunities as state, and federal governments have a wide range of shared well as to shopping and personal business; goals and (2) increased investment and use of public trans- Increased economic stimulus, including job creation, portation yields benefits that serve these goals. business sales, profitability and competitiveness; rising In planning and carrying out steps to enact new local and land and property values; and neighborhood revitalization; regional revenue sources for transit, it is crucial to understand all of which yield increased revenues to every layer of gov- and promote these benefits, recognizing that the importance ernment--local, state, and federal; of each will vary from community to community. Increased safety and security through reductions in motor There is considerable documentation of the benefits of pub- vehicle incidents and accidents and enhanced options in lic transportation at all levels. Both APTA and CFTE, among response to human-made or natural disasters; and other organizations, have exhaustive informational materials Increased personal health and well-being through greater and research on the benefits of transit that can be used to fash- emphasis on and opportunity for walking and nonmo- ion effective arguments for increasing support for transit fund- torized trip making amid more efficient development ing initiatives. patterns. These arguments are best crafted around individual com- munities' specific circumstances, needs, and goals. They The arguments and resources materials highlighted above must, however, appeal to a variety of stakeholders, including are being combined with observations on the advantages households, business and industry, and government agen- and disadvantages of specific funding sources (noted in Sec- tion 4.0) by transit systems and advocates around the coun- try and tailored in support of virtually all new local funding initiatives. 78 Crabbe, A., et al. Local Transportation Sales Taxes: California's Experiment in Transportation Finance--Detailed Research Findings. University of Cali- 79Sources for this material on transit benefits are and fornia Transportation Center, Berkeley, CA, 2002, p. 34.