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64 APPENDIX E Selected Bibliography 1. American Public Transportation Association, Letter to IRS re: tax- 14. Canadian Urban Transit Association, Provincial and Territorial ation of lease revenues, August 11, 2006. Funding of Urban Transit in Canada, March 2005. 2. American Public Transportation Association, Passenger Transport, 15. Canzi, Michael, Innovations in Transit Funding, Canadian Urban Vol. 64, No. 46, November 13, 2006, Vol. 64, No. 46, November Transit Association, STRP Report 20, November 2003. 20, 2006, Vol. 64, No. 50, December 18, 2006, Vol. 65, No. 1, 16. Cappe, Marni, Congestion Charging Helps London Get a Move On, January 1, 2007, American Public Transportation Association, Plan, spring 2004. Washington, DC. 17. Cappe, Marni, Congestion Charging: A Look at London, England, 3. American Public Transportation Association, A Survey of Local Prepared for Infrastructure Canada, September 2003. Mechanisms for Financing Transit Operating Costs, August 1979, 18. Cappaert, Sylvie, "The Finance Dilemma," Public Transport Inter- June 1982. national, No. 2, 2005. 4. Antos, Justin, Financial Devolution in Transport: How Others Do 19. Cascetta, Ennio, Who Should Pay for Public Transport? Pro- It, and Does It Work? Case Studies from Western Europe and North ceedings, 2nd UITP International Conference on Public Transport America, Paper prepared for Transport for London by the Mas- Financing--The Finance Dilemma: Growing Requirements versus sachusetts Institute of Technology 2006. Declining Funds, Barcelona, Spain, 2005. 5. Antos, Justin, Subsidy Structures of Transit Agencies in North 20. Center for Transportation Excellence, Transportation Finance at America, Paper prepared for the Chicago Transit Authority and the Ballot Box: Voter's Support Increased Investment and Choice, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, August 2006. www.cfte.org. 6. Bellon, Philippe. Comptivit et Financement du Transport Collectif 21. Central Broward East-West Transit Analysis Feasibility Report, au Canada, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Appendix A: Summary of National Experience in Funding Transit Urban and Periurban Transport, Paris, 910 September 2004. Capital and Operations, 2004. 7. Berger, Louis. Review of French Experience with Respect to Public 22. Cervero, Robert, et al., TCRP Research Results Digest Number 52: Sector Financing of Urban Transport, Draft Final Report, World Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review, July 2000. States: a Literature Review, Transportation Research Board of the 8. Berry, Jim and Lee Sims, "North American Examples of Innovative National Academies, Washington, DC, October 2002. Funding For Public Transport," Proceedings, UITP Seminar on 23. Cervero, Robert et al., TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Develop- Urban Public Transport Funding, Paris, October 1999. ment in the United States: Experiences, Challenges and Prospects, 9. Brown, Jeffery, "Paying for Transit in an Era of Federal Policy Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Change," Journal of Public Transportation, Volume 8, Number 3, Washington, DC, 2004. Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South 24. Chaigneau, Elisabeth, SYSTRA, Urban Public Transport in France: Florida, Tampa, FL, 2005. Institutional Organization, CERTU, Ministre de l'Equipement, 10. Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Future Financing Options to Meet des Transports, du Logement, du Tourisme et de la Mer, Paris, Highway and Transit Needs, NCHRP Project 20-24(49), Interim France, January 2003. Report, May 2006. 25. Chong, Gordon, Financing Public Transit in Canada: Ontario 11. Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Funding and Finance: Advancing Perspective, Presentation, Proceedings, Canadian Urban Transit from Good to Great Practice in State DOTs, Briefing Paper, Association, Fall Conference, Montreal, Canada, November 2004. NCHRP Project 20-24(51) CEO Leadership Forum, Minneapolis, 26. Citizens Budget Commission of New York, How to Balance the Minnesota, September 2006. MTA's Budget: A Report of the Citizens Budget Commission, New 12. Cambridge Systematics, Inc., New Ways to Implement New Trans- York, NY, June 27, 2006. portation Revenue Sources, for the Washington Metropolitan Area 27. City of Lynwood, CA, An Ordinance of the City Council of the City Council of Governments, 2002. of Lynnwood Adding a New Section 11-19 to Chapter 11 of the 13. Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Scan of Innovative Finance Tech- Lynnwood Municipal Code for the Purpose of Establishing a Develop- niques for Pennsylvania, Final Report to PennDOT, Harrisburg, ment Impact Fee Program at www.lynwood.ca.us/documents/pdf/ Pennsylvania, January 2006. legislation/if_res_draft_041106.pdf.

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65 28. City of Seattle, Transit Oriented Development Case Studies at www. Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting, Purdue ci.seattle.wa.us/transportation/SAP/TOD_Case_Studies/summary. University, Lafayette, ID, January 2006. pdf. 46. Hanak, E., Rueben, K., Funding Innovations for California 29. Corbett, Sam, Goldman, Todd, and Wachs, Martin, Local Option Infrastructure: Promises and Pitfalls, Keston Institute for Public Transportation Taxes in the United States, Institute of Transportation Finance and Infrastructure Policy, University of Southern Studies, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, California, Los Angeles, CA Research Paper 06-01, March 2006. March 2001 and http://repositories.cdlib.org/its/reports/UCB-ITS- 47. Henkin, Tamar, Financing Capital Investment: What are the Options RR-2001-3/. and, as Transit Agency Managers, How Do You Decide What's Right 30. Crabbe, Amber et al., Local Transportation Sales Taxes: California's for You? Presentation to the 3rd National Transportation Finance Experiment in Transportation Finance, University of California Conference, Chicago, Illinois, October 27, 2002. Transportation Center Research Paper No. 552, 2002. 48. Hess, D. B. and Lombardi, P. A., "Government Subsidies for 31. Crabbe, Amber et al., Local Transportation Sales Taxes: California's Public Transit: History, Current Issues and Recent Evidence," Experiment in Transportation Finance--Detailed Research Findings, Public Works Management and Policy, Vol. 10, October 1, 2005, University of California Transportation Center Research Paper American Society for Public Administration, Sage Publications, No. 737, February 2005. Inc., Washington, DC 32. Delcan, Study of Alternative Revenue Sources for Ontario Transit 49. Higginson, Martin, UITP Position Statement: Public Transport Systems, Ontario Urban Transit Association, September 1994. Finance, UITP, September 2002. 33. Development Planning and Financing Group, Inc., Comparison of 50. Hikichi, Lynda, Beimborn, E., Innovation at Transit Systems: Improvement Districts and Community Facility Districts, November Survey Results Draft Report, Center for Urban Transportation 2, 2004 at www.dpfg.com/news/view_news.php?newsID=25. Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, 34. Dowell, David E., California's Infrastructure Policy for the 21st August 2004. Century: Issues and Opportunities, Public Policy Institute of Califor- 51. HOT Lane Concept and Rationale, Federal Highway Administration nia, San Francisco, CA, 2000. at http://www.its.dot.gov/jpodocs/repts_te/13668_files/chapter_1. 35. Doherty, Matthew, Funding Public Transport Development through htm. Land Value Capture Programs, Eco Transit at http://www.ecotransit. 52. ICF Consulting and Institute of Transportation Studies, Berkeley, or.au, 2004. Metropolitan-Level Transportation Funding Sources, for AASHTO 36. Federal Transit Administration, Procedures and Technical Methods Standing Committee on Planning, Washington, DC, December for Transit Project Planning: Chapter 8, Financial Planning for Transit, 2005. Section 8.5, Forecasting Revenue, Washington, DC at www.fta.dot. 53. Infrastructure Canada, Infrastructure Financing: A Literature Review gov/planning/newstarts/planning_environment_2425.html. of Financing Mechanisms, Ottawa, Ontario, CA, January 2004. 37. "FasTrak Value Pricing Fact Sheet," San Diego Association of 54. International Association of Public Transport (UITP), Survey on Governments at http://www.sandag.org/uploads/publicationid/ Public Transport Organization and Financing; Synthesis of Answers publicationid_831_4185.pdf. to Questionnaires, Prepared by Mohamed Mezghani, Director 38. Furzer, Catherine, "Congestion Charging," Public Transport Inter- Programmes and Studies, UITP, Brussels, October 2002. national, No. 5, 2006. 55. KFH Group, Inc., Chittenden County Transit Funding Report, 39. Gerau, Jurgen, Apports du Financement Priv dans des Structures Washington, DC, December 18, 2002. de PPP--Exigences et Experiences, Presentation, Proceedings of the 56. KFH Group, Inc., "Employee Compensation Guidelines for 3rd International Conference on Urban and Periurban Transport, Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas," TCRP Project Paris, 910 September 2004. F-12 survey results, Washington, DC, 2007. 40. Gwilliam, Ken, Financing Public Transport, Proceedings, UITP 57. Knight, Paul, Unconventional Charging and Taxation to Support Seminar on Urban Public Transport Funding, Paris, October Public Transport and Taxation Disincentives in Commuter Tran- 1999. sport, Proceedings of the International Congress of the International 41. Goldman, T. Corbett, S. Wachs, M., Local Option Transportation Association of Public Transport (UITP), London, U.K., 2001. Taxes in the United States, Part One: Issues and Trends, Institute 58. Kyte, Cheryl, Selected Options for Innovative Transit Financing, of Transportation Studies, University of California at Berkeley, Virginia Transportation Research Council, Richmond, VA, 1997. Berkeley, CA, March 2001. 59. McCormick Rankin Corporation, How Should the User Pay? 42. Goldman, T. Corbett, S. Wachs, M., Local Option Transportation Opportunities for Financing the Region of Ottawa-Carleton Trans- Taxes in the United States, Part Two: State-by-State Findings, portation System, Prepared for the Region of Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at December 1998. Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, March 2001. 60. McWilliams, Douglas, The Macroeconomic Framework, Proceedings, 43. Goldman, T., Wachs, M., "A Quiet Revolution in Transportation UITP Seminar on Urban Public Transport Funding, Paris, FR, Finance: The Rise of Local Option Transportation Taxes," Trans- October 1999. portation Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 1, Winter 2003, pp. 1932, Eno 61. Meads, Richard, Use of Private Finance in London and the Prospects Foundation, Inc. Washington, DC for Using Parking and Congestion Charging to Fund Public Transport 44. Hager, Wolfgang, Financial Innovation in Rail-Based Mass Transit, Investment, Proceedings, UITP Seminar on Urban Public Transport Report Prepared for A UITP/Unife Working Group with the Funding, Paris, FR, October 1999. Support of the European Commission Dg III. Main Report and 62. Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jos State University, Case Studies, UITP--UNIFE, 1999. Lessons Learned: A Conference on Transit Referenda and Why They 45. Hamideh, A., Oh, J. E., Labi, S., Mannering, F., An Econometric Succeed or Fail, June 29July 31, 2001. San Jose, California. Analysis of Post-Election Opinion Surveys: Understanding Public 63. Mullen, Clancy, Road Impact Fee Study, Lee County, FL, Duncan Acceptance of Local Transportation Sales Taxes, Presentation to the Associates, Austin, TX, October 2006.

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66 64. Multisystems, Inc. et al., TCRP Research Results Digest 14: Coordi- New York, Independent Budget Office, New York, New York, nated Intermodal Transportation Pricing and Funding Strategies, June 1, 2007. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 84. Rybeck, Rick, "Using Value Capture To Finance Infrastructure And Washington, DC, October 1997. Encourage Compact Development," Public Works Management & 65. National Conference of State Legislatures, Surface Transportation Policy, Washington, DC, April 2004, pp. 249260, http://pwm. Funding: Options for States, Washington, DC, May 2006. sagepub.com. 66. Nicholas, James, et al., Impact Fees in Florida: Their Evolution, 85. SFGov, San Francisco, Chapter 38: Transit Impact Development Fee, Methodology, Current Issues and Comparisons with Other States, www.municode.com/content/4201/14131/HTML/ch038.html. White Paper prepared for the Florida City and County Managers 86. SYSTRA, Review of French Experience in Private Financing of Public Association, October 2005. Urban Transport, World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review, 67. Northern Virginia Transit Funding Resource Guide, October December 2000. 2001. 87. San Francisco Planning + Urban Research Association, Planning 68. Oh, J. E., Labi, S., Sinha, K. C., Implementation and Evaluation of for Growth: A Proposal to Expand San Francisco's Transit Impact Self-Financing Highway Pricing Schemes: A Case Study, Paper Development Fee, Recommendations of the SPUR Transportation Prepared for the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Committee, June 20, 2001. 2007, No. 07-2258, Washington, DC, January 2007. 88. Schaller Bruce, TCRP Synthesis 51: Transit Advertising Sales 69. Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Municipal Office, Municipal Agreements, Transportation Research Board of the National Acade- Transit Funding; Jurisdictional Review, Ontario MTO, June 1999. mies, Washington, DC, 2004. 70. Oregon Department of Revenue, Transit District Self-Employment 89. Schneck, D. C., Laver, R; Darido, G. B.; Diaz, R. B., Capital Funding Taxes, www.oregon.gov/DOR/BUS/IC-102-406.shtml. Sources for Transit Projects, Prepared for U.S. Federal Transit 71. Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., and Cambridge Administration, Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innova- Systematics, Inc., Innovative Finance In-Depth: Local Revenue- tion, Washington, DC, 2003. Enhancing Options, PennDOT Work Order 13, August 2006. 90. Silverberg, Beverly R., TCRP Synthesis 32: Transit Advertising 72. Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., Enhanced Scan of Revenue: Traditional and New Sources and Structures, Transpor- Innovative Finance Techniques for Public Transportation in Penn- tation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, sylvania, Work Order No. 16, Draft Report to PennDOT, Harris- DC, 1998. burg, Pennsylvania, August 31, 2006. 91. Smith, Lauren, Benko, Marika, Services and Technologies: Conges- 73. Pennsylvania Transportation Funding and Reform Commission, tion Pricing, 2003/2007 at www.calccit.org/itsdecision/service_and_ Investing in Our Future: Addressing Pennsylvania's Transportation technology/Congestion_pricing/Congestion_pricing_summary. Funding Crisis, Initial Findings, Harrisburg, PA, August 2006. html. 74. Philip, Christian et Nicolas Gauthier, Le Financement des Dplace- 92. Spock, Linda, Facts and Myths About Tolls: A Compilation of ments Urbains, Ministre de l'Equipement, des Transports, du Reference Materials, Prepared by Linda Spock Consulting, Inc. for Logement, du Tourisme et de la Mer, France. Dcembre 2003. the International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association, 75. Philip, Christian, Quelles Nouvelles Sources de Financement pour Washington, DC, May 2001. les Dplacements Urbains? Proceedings of the 3rd International 93. Stocker II, Robert W., State LotteriesThe New Casinos? at www. Conference on Urban and Periurban Transport, Paris, FR, 910 gaminglawmasters.com/articles/2004/stocker_newcasinos.htm. September 2004. 94. Surface Transportation Policy Project (STPP) at www.transact.org. 76. TCRP Project B-33, "Practical Measures to Increase Transit 95. Simmonds, Keith C., Innovative Transit Financing in Florida, Industry Advertising Revenues," Transportation Research Board, Florida Department of Transportation, Transit Office, Tallahassee, Washington, DC, http://rip.trb.org/browse/dproject.asp?n=11725. FL, 2003. 77. Price Waterhouse LLP with Multisystems, Inc. and Mundle and 96. Sorenson, Paul, Cheaper Gas and More Expensive Shoes: California's Associates, Inc., TCRP Report 31: Funding Strategies for Public Recent Transportation Finance Reform Proposal, Presentation to the Transportation, Transportation Research Board, National Research TRB 85th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 25, 2006. Council, Washington, DC, 1998. 97. 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67 104. "Transit Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United 123. Wetzel, Dave, "Innovative Ways of Financing the Backbone of States: A Literature Review," TCRP Research Results Digest, an Integrated Mobility Policy," Proceedings, 2nd UITP Inter- Number 52, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., national Conference on Public Transport Financing--The October 2002. Finance Dilemma: Growing Requirements Versus Declining 105. TransTech Management, Inc., "Financing Capital Investment: A Funds, Barcelona, Spain, 2005. Primer for the Transit Practitioner," TCRP Report 89, Transportation 124. Whitty, J., Svadlenak, J., and Capps, D., "Public Involvement and Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2003. Road User Charge Development: Oregon's Experience," Oregon 106. Turner, Derek, "Central London Congestion Charging Scheme: Has Department of Transportation, Salem, OR, March 2006. it Achieved its Objectives," Presentation, Proceedings, Canadian 125. 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68 Pricing and Fees, Transportation Research Board of the National 148. Werner, Jan, The Current State of Organization and Finance of Academies, Washington, DC, 2005. Public Transport in Europe, Working Group on Competition 144. Volinsky, Joel, Lessons Learned in Transit Efficiencies, Revenue Issues of the Committee of Organizing Authorities in the Inter- Generation, and Cost Reductions, National Center for Transit national Association of Public Transport (UITP), 2001. Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2003. 149. Wetzel, Dave, Innovative Ways of Financing the Backbone of an 145. Wachs, Martin, A Quiet Crisis in Transportation Finance" Integrated Mobility Policy, Proceedings, 2nd UITP International Options for Texas, Testimony before the Texas Study Com- Conference on Public Transport Financing--The Finance mission on Transportation Finance, Austin, TX, April 19, Dilemma: Growing Requirements Versus Declining Funds, 2006. Barcelona, Spain, 2005. 146. Wachs, Martin, Improving Efficiency and Equity in Transportation 150. Whitty, J., Svadlenak, J., and Capps, D., Public Involvement and Finance, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Transportation Road User Charge Development: Oregon's Experience, Oregon Reform Series, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, April Department of Transportation, Salem, OR, March 2006. 2003. 151. Wolman, Harold and Reigeluth, George, Financing Urban Public 147. Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authority, Dedi- Transportation: The U.S. and Europe. Transaction Books, New cated Revenue Sources for Major U.S. Transit Agencies, October 15, Brunswick, New Jersey, 1980. 2004. 152. http://www.lightrailnow.org.