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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 628 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Self-Consolidating Concrete for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Elements

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS David Kelly, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Thomas J. Madison, Jr., Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of November 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 628 Self-Consolidating Concrete for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Elements Kamal Henri Khayat UNIVERSITY OF SHERBROOKE Sherbrooke, QC AND Denis Mitchell MCGILL UNIVERSITY Montreal, QC Subject Areas Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Materials and Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 628 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 18-12 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-11766-1 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 200891105 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2009 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 628 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor Andra Briere, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 18-12 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Concrete Materials Wayne Kling, Delaware DOT, Dover, DE (Chair) Bijan Khaleghi, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Ralph A. Browne, Texas DOT, Euless, TX Teck L. Chua, Concrete Engineering, Inc., Springfield, VA Lieska K. Halsey, Nebraska DOR, Lincoln, NE Charles A. Ishee, Florida DOT, Gainesville, FL James R. Kochsiek, Minnesota DOT, Maplewood, MN M. Myint Lwin, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC Anton K. Schindler, Auburn University, Auburn, AL Gary Crawford, FHWA Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research presented herein was performed under NCHRP Project 18-12 by the Cement and Con- crete Research Group of the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, and McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Dr. Kamal Henri Khayat, Professor at the Department of Civil Engineering and Director of the Cement and Concrete Research Group at University of Sherbrooke, was the principal investigator. Professor Denis Mitchell of the Department of Civil Engineering and Structural Mechanics at McGill University served as the subcontractor's principal investigator. Mr. Wu Jian Long, Ph.D. candidate, Mr. Guillaume Lemieux, master student, Dr. Soo-Duck Hwang, post-doctoral fellow, and Dr. Ammar Yahia, research engineer, all from the University of Sherbrooke, actively participated in all aspects of this project. Dr. William D. Cook, research engineer, and Ms. Lama Baali, master student, at McGill University were involved in the structural performance of the full-scale girders. Dr. Celik H. Ozyildirim from the Virginia Transport Research Council served as a consultant to the research team.

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FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents recommended guidelines for the use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in precast, prestressed concrete bridge elements. These guidelines address the selec- tion of constituent materials, proportioning of concrete mixtures, testing methods, fresh and hardened concrete properties, production and quality control issues, and other aspects of SCC. The report also presents recommended changes to the AASHTO Load and Resis- tance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design and Construction Specifications, and test pro- tocols for evaluating some of the properties of SCC. The information contained in the report will guide materials and bridge engineers in evaluating, selecting, and specifying SCC mixtures for use in precast, prestressed concrete bridge elements, thereby facilitating fabri- cation, improving working environment and safety, and reducing cost. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state materials and bridge engineers and others involved in specifying and evaluating concrete mixtures for use in highway bridges. SCC is a specially proportioned hydraulic cement concrete that enables the fresh concrete to flow easily into forms and around reinforcement and prestressing steel without segrega- tion. Use of this type of concrete for the manufacture of precast, prestressed concrete bridge elements provides the benefits of increased rate of production and safety, reduced labor needs, and lower noise levels at manufacturing plants. In spite of its benefits and widespread use in Japan and Europe, the use of SCC in the United States has been limited because of concerns about certain design and construction issues that are perceived to influence con- structability, performance, and structural integrity of the bridge system. Thus, research was needed to address the factors that significantly influence the design, constructability, and performance of precast, prestressed bridge elements manufactured with SCC, such as work- ability, strength development, creep and shrinkage properties, bond to reinforcement, and durability. Research was also needed to develop guidelines for the use of SCC in these appli- cations and to recommend related changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construc- tion Specifications. These guidelines and enhanced specifications will provide highway agencies with the information necessary for considering SCC in precast, prestressed con- crete bridge elements as a means for expediting construction and reducing cost while increasing safety and reducing noise in manufacturing plants. Under NCHRP Project 18-12, "Self-Consolidating Concrete for Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Elements," the University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, worked with the objectives of (1) developing guidelines for the use of SCC in precast, prestressed con- crete bridge elements and (2) recommending relevant changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Specifications. To accomplish these objectives, the researchers

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reviewed available information on the use of SCC in structural applications and investigated its use in precast, prestressed concrete bridge elements. The investigation included an exten- sive laboratory testing program that covered the types and ranges of materials used in SCC mixtures and considered the properties that affect constructability and performance. Based on this review and analysis of test results, the researchers recommended changes to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Specifications (included as Attachment A) and guidelines for the use of SCC in precast, prestressed concrete bridge elements (included as Attachment B). In addition, the researchers proposed test protocols for evalu- ating some of the properties of SCC for which standard test methods are not readily avail- able (included as Attachment C). The recommended guidelines, changes to LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Speci- fications, and test protocols will be particularly useful to highway agencies because their use will help identify SCC mixtures that will provide the desired properties and performance and thus accrue the anticipated benefits. Incorporation of these recommendations in the relevant AASHTO documents is therefore recommended. Attachment D, "Research Description and Findings," provides detailed information on the experimental program and data analysis, and the findings of the literature review. This attachment is not published herein but is available on the TRB website (www.trb.org/news/ blurb_detail.asp?id=9627).

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Findings 5 1.1 Test Methods and Mixture Requirements 5 1.2 Selection of Concrete Constituents 7 1.3 Factorial Design to Model Fresh and Hardened Concrete Properties 9 1.4 Validation of Code Provisions to Estimate Mechanical Properties 10 1.5 Validation of Code Provisions to Estimate Visco-Elastic Properties 10 1.6 Homogeneity of In-Situ Strength and Bond to Reinforcement 10 1.7 Structural Performance 12 Chapter 2 Background and Research Approach 12 2.1 Background 13 2.2 Research Approach 21 2.3 Approach for Relevant Changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Specifications 21 2.4 Guidelines for Use of SCC in Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Elements 22 Chapter 3 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Application 23 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 23 4.1 Test Methods and Material Requirements 23 4.2 Material Constituents and Mix Design 26 4.3 Code Provisions for Estimating Mechanical and Visco-Elastic Properties 26 4.4 Homogeneity of In-Situ Strength and Bond to Reinforcement 26 4.5 Structural Performance of AASHTO-Type II Girders 27 4.6 Recommendations for Future Research 29 Glossary 31 References A-1 Attachment A Recommended Changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Specifications B-1 Attachment B Recommended Guidelines for Use of Self-Consolidating Concrete in Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridge Elements C-1 Attachment C Recommended Standard Test Methods D-1 Attachment D Research Description and Findings