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100 Figure 8-3. Permanent seismic deformation charts (Makdisi and Seed, 1978). Figure 8-5 shows a median prediction sliding displacement 8.3 Proposed Design Methodology chart, normalized by kmax and D595, an earthquake duration parameter dependent on magnitude. For example, if ky/kmax = Two approaches for the seismic design of embankments 0.2, kmax = 0.4, D595 = 10 seconds, then u equals about 15 inches, and slopes are described in the previous section: (1) the limit equilibrium approach, and (2) displacement-based method. compared to about 6 inches (or 12 inches to achieve an 84 per- Both are relatively simple to use, and both involve essentially cent confidence level) for the recommended Newmark chart the same modeling effort. The advantage of the displacement- shown on Figure 7-18 of this report. This difference is rela- tively small considering the general accuracy of the Newmark method. Figure 8-4. Normalized MHEA for deep-seated slide surface vs. normalized fundamental period of slide Figure 8-5. Normalized sliding displacement mass (Bray and Rathje, 1998). (SCEC, 2002; modified from Bray and Rathje, 1998).