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12 Develop a list of potential example problems that could be Caltabiano, S., E. Cascone, and M. Maugeri. "Sliding used during validation studies and preparation of design Response of Rigid Retaining Walls." In Earthquake examples. Geotechnical Engineering: Proceedings of the Second Inter- national Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engi- neering; Lisbon, Portugal, 2125 June 1999, Rotterdam: 2.2.1 Key References A. A. Balkema, 1999. The literature review consisted of collecting and evaluating Cardosa, A. S., M. Matos Fernandes, and J. A. Mateus information already available to the Project Team, as well as de Brito. "Application of Structural Eurocodes to Grav- electronic literature searches. One of the most effective search ity Retaining Wall Seismic Design Conditioned by Base mechanisms was through use of Quakeline, the search Sliding." In Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering: Pro- mechanism identified in the Multidisciplinary Center for ceedings of the Second International Conference on Earth- Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) Center's website quake Geotechnical Engineering; Lisbon, Portugal, 2125 (http://mceer.buffalo.edu/utilities/quakeline.asp). June 1999, Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1999. More than 140 abstracts have been downloaded and Cascone, E. and M. Maugeri. "On the Seismic Behav- reviewed in the area of retaining walls dating from the past ior of Cantilever Retaining Walls." In Proceedings of 10 years, more than 130 for seismic response of slopes and the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engi- embankments, and more than 50 references for seismic neering; Vienna, Austria, 28 August-2 September 1994, response of pipelines and culverts. Copies of papers and Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1995. reports were obtained for those references that appeared to Choukeir, M., I. Juran, and S. Hanna. "Seismic Design of contain unique information or results that are particularly Reinforced-Earth and Soil Nailed Structures." Ground relevant to the Project objectives. As noted in the intro- Improvement, Vol. 1, pp. 223238, 1997. ductory paragraph to this chapter, this phase of the Project Chugh, A. K. "A Unified Procedure for Earth Pressure focused on references that could be used directly or indi- Calculations." In Proceedings of the 3rd International rectly to develop methodologies that could be implemented Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earth- by practicing engineers. quake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, 1995. Some of the representative relevant articles and reports FHWA. "Manual for Design & Construction Monitor- identified are summarized below. ing of Soil Nail Walls." U.S. Department of Trans- portation, Federal Highway Administration, Publica- Retaining Walls tion No. FHWA-SA-96-069R, Revised October, 1998. "Analysis and Design of Retaining Structures Against FHWA. "Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Earthquakes." Geotechnical Special Publication No. 80, Reinforced Soil Slopes Design & Construction Guide- ASCE, November, 1996. Ausilio, E., E. Conte, and G. Dente. "Seismic Stability lines." U.S. Department of Transportation Federal High- Analysis of Reinforced Slopes." Soil Dynamics and Earth- way Administration, National Highway Institute, Office quake Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 159172, April 2000. of Bridge Technology, Publication No. FHWA-NHI-00- Bathurst, R. J., M. C. Alfaro, and K. Hatami. "Pseudo- 043, March 2001. Static Seismic Design of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Green, R. A., C. G. Olgun, R. M. Ebeling, and W. I. Retaining Structures." Asia Conference on Earthquake Cameron. "Seismically Induced Lateral Earthquake Engineering, Manila, Philippines, Vol. 2, pp. 149160, Pressures on a Cantilever Retaining Wall." In Advancing March 2004. Mitigation Technologies and Disaster Response for Life- Bathurst, R. J. and Z. Cai. "Pseudo-Static Seismic line Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth U.S. Conference and Analysis of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Segmental Retain- Workshop on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering (TCLEE ing Walls." Geosynthetics International, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2003), ASCE, Reston, VA, 2003. pp. 787830, 1995. Lazarte, C. A., V. Elias, D. Espinoza, and P. Sabatini. "Soil Bathurst, R. J. and K. Hatami. "Seismic Response Nail Walls." Geotechnical Engineering, Circular No. 7, Analysis of a Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Retaining March 2003. Wall." Geosynthetics International, Vol. 5, Nos. 1&2, Ling, H. I. "Recent Applications of Sliding Block The- pp. 127166, 1998. ory to Geotechnical Design." Soil Dynamics and Earth- Bathurst, R. J., K. Harami, and M. C. Alfaro. "Geosyn- quake Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 189197, April thetic Reinforced Soil Walls and Slopes: Seismic Aspects." 2001. (S. K. Shukla Ed.): Geosynthetics and Their Applications, Ling, H. I., D. Leschinsky, and N. S. C. Nelson. "Post- (2002) Thomas Telford Ltd., London, UK, pp. 327392, Earthquake Investigation on Several Geosynthetic- November 2004. Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls and Slopes during the

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13 Ji-Ji Earthquake of Taiwan." Soil Dynamics and Earth- Slopes and Embankments quake Engineering, Vol. 21, pp. 297313, 2001. ASCE/SCEC. "Recommended Procedures for Imple- Ling, H. I., D. Leschinsky, and E. B. Perry. "Seismic mentation of DMG Special Publication 117 Guidelines Design and Performance of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil for Analyzing Landslide Hazards in California." February Structures." Geotechnique, Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 933952, 2002. 1997, Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, Ashford, S. A. and N. Sitar. "Seismic Coefficients for St. Louis, 1997. Steep Slopes." Proceedings of the 7th International Con- Michalowski, R. L. and L. You. "Displacements of ference on Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Reinforced Slopes Subjected to Seismic Loads." Journal pp. 441448, 1995. of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Dickenson, S. E., N. J. McCullough, M. G. Barkau, and ASCE, Vol. 126, No. 8, pp. 685694, August 2000. B. J. Wavra. "Assessment and Mitigation of Lique- Nova-Roessig, L. and N. Sitar. "Centrifuge Studies of faction Hazards to Bridge Approach Embankments in the Seismic Response of Reinforced Soil Slopes." Pro- Oregon." Prepared for the Oregon Department of ceedings of the 3rd Geotechnical Earthquake Engineer- Transportation and Federal Highways Administration, ing and Soil Dynamics Conference, Special Publication November 2002. No. 75, ASCE, Vol. 1, pp. 458468, 1998. Leshchinsky, D. and K. San. "Pseudo-Static Seismic Peng, J. "Seismic Sliding and Tilting of Retaining Walls Stability of Slopes: Design Charts." Journal of Geotechni- in Kobe Earthquake." M.S. Thesis, State University of cal Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 120, No. 9, pp. 15141532, New York at Buffalo, August 1998. September 1994. Prakash, S. and Y. M. Wei. "On Seismic Displacement of Ling, H. I. "Recent Applications of Sliding Block Theory Rigid Retaining Walls." Proceedings of the 3rd Interna- to Geotechnical Design." Soil Dynamics and Earth- tional Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical quake Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 189197, April Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis, 2001. 1995. Loukidis, D., P. Bandini, and R. Salgado. "Stability of Sakaguchi, M. "A Study of the Seismic Behavior of Seismically Loaded Slopes Using Limit Analysis." Geo- Geosynthetic Walls in Japan." Geosynthetic International, technique, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 463479, June 2003. Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1330, 1996. Martin, G. "Evaluation of Soil Properties for Seismic Sarma, S. K. "Seismic Slope Stability--The Critical Stability Analyses of Slopes." Stability and Performance Acceleration." Proceedings of the 2nd International of Slopes and Embankments II: Proceedings of a Spe- Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, cialty Conference Sponsored by the Geotechnical Divi- Lisbon, Vol. 3, pp. 10771082, 1999. sion of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 1, Seco e Pinto, P. S. "Seismic Behavior of Gravity Retain- pp. 116142, 1992. ing Structures." In Earthquake Geotechnical Engineer- Munfakh, G. and E. Kavazanjian. "Geotechnical Earth- ing: Proceedings of IS-Tokyo `95, The First International quake Engineering, Reference Manual." Federal High- Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineer- way Administration, National Highway Institute, 1998. ing; Tokyo, 1416 November 1995, Rotterdam: A. A. Rogers, J. D. "Seismic Response of Highway Embank- Balkema, 1995. ments." In Transportation Research Record 1343, TRB, Simonelli, A. L. "Earth Retaining Wall Displacement National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1992, Analysis under Seismic Conditions." Proceedings of pp. 5262. the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engi- Sarma, S. K. "Seismic Slope Stability--The Critical neering; Vienna, Austria, 28 August-2 September 1994, Acceleration." Proceedings of the 2nd International Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1995. Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Tatsuoka, F., M. Tateyama, and J. Koseki. "Behavior of Lisbon, Vol. 3, pp. 10771082, 1999. Geogrid-Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls During the Simonelli, A. "Displacement Analysis in Earth Slope Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake." Proceedings of the Design Under Seismic Conditions." Soil Dynamics and 1st International Symposium on Earthquake Geotech- Earthquake Engineering VI, pp. 493505, 1993. nical Engineering, K. Ishihara, ed., Tokyo, pp. 5560, Simonelli, A. and E. Fortunato. "Effects of Earth Slope 1995. Characteristics on Displacement Based Seismic Design." Tufenkjian, M. R. and M. Vucetic. "Seismic Stability of Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Earthquake Soil Nailed Excavations." Civil Engineering Depart- Engineering, CD-ROM-1017, 1996. ment, UCLA School of Engineering and Applied Sci- Simonelli, A. and C. Viggiano. "Effects of Seismic Motion ence, June 1993. Characteristics on Earth Slope Behavior." 1st Inter-