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14 national Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engi- O'Rourke, T. D. "An Overview of Geotechnical and neering, pp. 10971102, 1995. Lifeline Earthquake Engineering." Geotechnical Special Stewart, J. P., T. F. Blake, and R. A. Hollingsworthe. Publication No. 75--Geotechnical Earthquake Engineer- "A Screen Analysis Procedure for Seismic Slope Stabil- ing and Soil Dynamics III, ASCE, Vol. 2, 1999. ity." Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 697712, O'Rourke, T. D., S. Toprak, and Y. Sano. "Factors August 2003. Affecting Water Supply Damage Caused by the North- Wahab, R. M. and G. B. Heckel. "Static Stability, ridge Earthquake." Proceedings, 6th US National Con- Pseudo-Static Seismic Stability and Deformation Analy- ference on Earthquake Engineering, Seattle, WA, 1998. sis of End Slopes." Proceedings of the 2nd International Pease, J. W. and T. D. O'Rourke. "Seismic Response of Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Liquefaction Sites." Journal of Geotechnical and Geo- Lisbon, Portugal, Vol. 2, pp. 667672, 1999. environmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 1, Wartman, J. et al. "Laboratory Evaluation of the New- pp. 3745, January 1997. mark Procedure for Assessing Seismically-Induced Slope Shastid, T., J. Prospero, and J. Eidinger. "Southern Loop Deformations." Proceedings of the 2nd International Pipeline--Seismic Installation in Today's Urban Envi- Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, ronment." TCLEE, Monograph 25, 2003. Lisbon, Portugal, Vol. 2, pp. 673678, 1999. Youd, T. L. and C. J. Beckman. "Performance of Corru- Buried Structures gated Metal Pipe (CMP) Culverts during Past Earth- American Lifelines Alliance. "Seismic Fragility Formula- quakes." TCLEE, Monograph 25, 2003. tions for Water System." Part 1--Guidelines and Part 2-- Appendices, April 2001. 2.2.2 General Observations ASCE. "Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems." American Society of Civil Engi- Results of this literature review determined that a significant neers, Committee on Gas and Liquid Fuel Lifelines of amount of information has and continues to be published on the ASCE Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake the topics of seismic design and performance of retaining walls, Engineering, 1994. slopes and embankments, and buried structures. These publi- Hamada, M., R. Isoyama, and K. Wakamatsu. cations cover all facets of seismic design and performance from "Liquefaction-Induced Ground Displacement and Its simplified to highly rigorous numerical methods, laboratory Related Damage to Lifeline Facilities." Soils and Foun- testing with shake tables and centrifuges, and case histories, dations, Special Issue, 1996. though the number falling into this last category is relatively Holzer, et al. "Causes of Ground Failure in Alluvium dur- limited. ing the Northridge, California, Earthquake of January 17, Whereas the amount of literature is significant, the advances 1994." Technical Report NCEER-96-0012, 1996. in design methodology have been relatively limited over the past Johnson, E. R., M. C. Metz, and D. A. Hackney. "Assess- 10 to 20 years. New methodologies often have been refinements ment of the Below-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline Fol- of procedures suggested many years before. What might be con- lowing the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake." sidered the only significant advance is the common application TCLEE, Monograph 25, 2003. of various numerical methods to investigate seismic response. MCEER. "Response of Buried Pipelines Subject to Earth- quake Effects." MCEER Monograph Series No. 3, 1999. Limit-equilibrium computer codes are available from var- NCEER. "Highway Culvert Performance during Earth- ious vendors for evaluation of global stability of retaining quakes." NCEER Technical Report NCEER-96-0015, walls, slopes and embankments, and the permanent dis- November 1996. placement component of buried structures. These codes NCEER. "Case Studies of Liquefaction and Lifeline Per- allow the designer to consider various internal and exter- formance during Past Earthquakes." Technical Report nal forces, with seismic forces included as a horizontal NCEER-92-0001, Volume 1, M. Hamada, and T. D. force coefficient. Results from these analyses include criti- O'Rourke Eds., 1992. cal failure surfaces and factors of safety for global stability. O'Rourke, M. J. and X. Liu. "Continuous Pipeline Sub- A more limited number of finite element and finite dif- jected to Transient PGD: A Comparison of Solutions." ference codes also are being used now to estimate the dis- Technical Report NCEER-96-0012, 1996. placement of soils or soil-structure systems during seis- O'Rourke, M. J. and C. Nordberg. "Longitudinal Per- mic loading. These more rigorous numerical procedures manent Ground Deformation Effects on Buried Con- allow consideration of various geometries, time-dependent tinuous Pipelines." Technical Report NCEER-92-0014, loads, and soil properties whose strength changes with 1996. cycles of loading.