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2 CHAPTER 1 Introduction A significant part of highway safety program activities is All of these issues, as well as others, are covered in this re- devoted to behavioral countermeasures. These include the port. The intention is to develop a roadmap for states, a best entire driver control system--from training and licensing to practices guide for the use and assessment of behavioral laws and enforcement and sometimes culminating in fines countermeasures. In doing so, all such countermeasures that and sanctions. Given the enormous cost of crashes and the are used or could be used by states are considered, and infor- importance of driver behavior in highway loss reduction, it is mation on the cost and/or effectiveness is indicated when important that behavioral countermeasures be implemented available. as effectively as possible. Chapter 2 provides background information on counter- It is a challenge to accomplish this goal. Driver behavior can measures and Chapter 3 lists behavioral countermeasures by be changed, although this is not easily accomplished. Some be- logical groupings in terms of the behavior change approach havioral countermeasures are effective; others, including some used. Countermeasures within each group are separated into that are popular and widely used, are not effective. There are those that work in terms of reducing the highway safety prob- many complexities in assessing behavioral countermeasures. lem, and those that do not or for which the evidence is un- Some that may not be effective on their own (e.g., certain pub- certain or unknown. In subsequent chapters, the cost benefit lic information programs) can be an essential feature when parameters for proven effective countermeasures are calcu- combined with other elements. Some programs that may be lated and analyses of why certain programs work and others described the same way (e.g., public information/education do not are presented and draw on behavior change principles programs encouraging bicycle helmet use) can be widely differ- derived from the scientific literature. ent in ways that make one program effective, another not. This report aims to provide states with a framework for an Moreover, among measures that are effective, there is a wide evaluation of their current program in terms of countermea- range in how much they reduce the problem, depending on sures in use and those that might be used. The delineation of the effect size (e.g., a 5% versus a 25% reduction in highway behavior change principles indicating what works and what deaths), the size of the population to which the measure applies, does not also provides a means of assessing the likely contri- and the expected duration of the effect. There also can be wide bution of emerging, experimental, untried, or unproven be- differences in program costs, both monetary and nonmonetary. havioral safety measures.