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26 per year, then all of the figures in Table 9 need to be doubled. Selection of Countermeasures States with 300 fatalities need to cut the figures in Table 9 by The relative effectiveness of various countermeasures and half. Scaling is easily accomplished by taking your number of countermeasure groups has been described, along with con- fatalities (say 450); dividing by 600 (450/600 = 0.75); then siderations regarding their selection. This information multiplying this number (0.75) times every dollar estimate in should be considered by HSOs in the development of their the table. Similarly, a state with 750 fatalities would get a mul- highway safety plans. The next step is to actually select tiplier of 1.25 (750/600 = 1.25). countermeasures from these lists of potential countermea- The next step, after the dollar estimates in Table 9 have sures. One way to begin is to first identify total highway been adjusted for your state, is to array the potentially viable loss, as well as the proportion of that loss represented by countermeasures against the respective target groups. each target group for which a Proven countermeasure can Twenty-three Proven countermeasures are described in be implemented. Appendix B, along with percent crash reduction estimates. Table 9 shows the total fatal and nonfatal highway loss for Each has an intended target group and each indicates a typical 600-fatality state. This table represents national the expected effectiveness when fully and properly imple- averages. mented. Simply array the countermeasures against the ap- Table 9 can, and probably should, be generated specifi- propriate target group; then go to the last column in the table cally for your state based on your fatality data. Small states (total highway loss) and multiply the total by the expected should average the last 5 years; large states might use the last level of effectiveness. The result is the expected benefit for 3 years. The advantage to averaging across several years is your state. For example, alcohol-impaired drivers cost the that it provides a more statistically stable estimate for each typical 600-fatality state $537,874,321 per year. Sobriety target group. The disadvantage associated with using too checkpoints that are implemented across the state for the many prior years, however, is that the further back in time full year, with full media support, would be expected to pro- a state goes, the less representative the numbers will be of vide a 20% injury reduction. Multiply 20% by $537,874,321 its current situation. This is particularly important if the (or your state's adjusted total cost of deaths and injuries) state has recently implemented an important, potentially to calculate the estimated savings, which in this case is impacting countermeasure, such as a primary belt law, $107 million. the effects of which are only apparent for the recent past Sobriety checkpoints were selected as the first example (e.g., the last 18 months). since they are one of the most expensive countermeasures a Even if a state does not use its own data averaged across the state might consider. Proven countermeasures that can be last few years, it will still need to scale Table 9 to reflect its implemented at relatively less cost include child bike hel- annual number of fatalities. Thus, if a state has 1,200 fatalities met law, GDL, extended learner permit, night restrictions, Table 9. Fatal and nonfatal highway loss for typical 600-fatality state. Type of highway loss Crashes Fatal Nonfatal involving injuries injuries Fatal Nonfatal Total All persons 600 75572 $669,492,000 $2,285,140,088 $2,954,632,088 Pedestrians 67 2116 $75,110,214 $63,971,882 $139,082,096 Distracted 60 13997 $66,663,455 $423,239,815 $489,903,270 Drowsy 19 1412 $21,101,197 $42,704,002 $63,805,199 Speed 162 14178 $180,836,003 $428,711,216 $609,547,219 Aggressive 164 14770 $183,442,252 $446,600,914 $630,043,166 Alcohol related 248 11583 $276,723,360 $350,234,416 $626,957,776 Alcohol impaired 213 9937 $237,404,168 $300,470,153 $537,874,321 Teen drivers 32 7681 $35,969,377 $232,263,878 $268,233,255 Age-16 drivers 12 3318 $13,816,260 $100,328,595 $114,144,855 Elderly drivers 44 4232 $49,220,426 $127,978,295 $177,198,721 Motorcycles 65 2245 $72,528,300 $67,871,854 $140,400,154 Nighttime 214 14109 $238,550,290 $426,621,478 $665,171,767 Child in car 14 9168 $15,590,393 $277,215,254 $292,805,648 Front seat occupants 376 58720 $419,433,394 $1,775,583,025 $2,195,016,419 Bicycles 11 1153 $12,089,228 $34,859,723 $46,948,950